Polymer Fundamentals: Polymer Synthesis

Polymers can be of biological and synthetic origin, and are very important in our daily lives. They are used in all the major industries including textile, automotive, household goods, medical devices and products, etc. The significant difference between the requirements of these applications necessitates the availability of a large variety of polymers to choose from. Synthetic polymers can be prepared by addition and condensation polymerization using a variety of polymerization processes to yield polymers with differences in their stereoregularity, organization of their constituents, molecular weight, and crystallinity. All these differences yield polymers with different mechanical properties. Since the number of monomers available is very high, the variety of the polymers theoretically possible is also high. Some become viscoelastic and some are just plastic. Polymers are not always linear like noodles but can be made to have branches either of the same monomer or by adding other monomers to change the chemistry and the crystallinity of the product. They can be further branched or cross-linked so that the polymer becomes insoluble, and just swells in its linear polymer's solvents creating the gels. Or, a number of monomers can be used simultaneously to prepare macromolecules with properties that can be tailored to the needs of the application. All these play a deciding role on whether a polymer is suitable for load-bearing applications or in replacing the soft tissues in the human body. In this chapter, the main approaches to polymer synthesis and the parameters influencing the properties of the final product are discussed.


Polymerization and characterization of 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate
Vargün, Elif; Usanmaz, Ali; Department of Polymer Science and Technology (2003)
Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate), PHEA, is used as hydrophilic polymeric gels which have been studied because of its great importance for agricultural or biomedical applications. Biomedical applications of hydrogels include soft contact lenses, artificial corneas, soft tissue substitutes and burn dressings. In this study, it was aimed to synthesis the polymers with well-defined molecular weights, polydispersities and cahin topologies. Bulk, solution and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques at...
Thermal characterization of phenol and bisphenol-A based polybenzoxazines
Bagherifam, Shahla; Hacaloğlu, Jale; Department of Polymer Science and Technology (2009)
Although, several researches on synthesis and characterization of benzoxazines and polybenzoxazines have appeared in the literature, detailed studies on thermal characterization are still limited. In this study, polymerization and thermal degradation mechanisms of benzoxazines were investigated via direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry. Benzoxazine monomers prepared by reactions of phenol or bisphenol- A with aniline or methyl amine were analyzed to investigate the effects of the structures of phenyl and amine...
Formation and characterization of food grade liposome systems
Güner, Selen; Öztop, Halil Mecit; Department of Food Engineering (2015)
Liposomes are double-layered spherical vesicles made up of polar lipids and could be used in pharmaceutical, personal care, chemical and food industries to encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds. Being biodegradable, biocompatible not having any toxic effects and having the ability to release the active agents when desired make these systems advantageous for many applications. The main natural sources used for liposome formation are egg and soy. In this study, egg and soy lecithin with highe...
Investigations on the biodegradable polymeric and inorganic substrates for controlled drug delivery and bone and cartilage repair
Günay, Aycan; Bayramlı, Erdal; Department of Polymer Science and Technology (2008)
Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to address the needs by applying the principles of chemistry, biology and engineering for the development of viable substitutes that restore and maintain the function of human bone and cartilage tissues. In tissue engineering, scaffolds play an important role as temporary supports for the transplantation of specific cells and tissues. In this study, poly(ester-urethane)urea (PEUU) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated. Scaffolds we...
Benzyl functionalized benzotriazole containing conjugated polymers: effect of substituent position on electrochromic properties and synthesis of crown ether functionalized electrochromic polymers
Yiğitsoy, Başak; Toppare, Levent Kamil; Department of Chemistry (2011)
A new class of π-conjugated monomers was synthesized with combination of electron donating and electron-withdrawing heterocyclics to understand the effects of structural differences on electrochemical and optoelectronic properties of the resulting polymers. Electron deficient benzotriazole, substititued with benzyl from two available sites, coupled with stannylated electron donating groups, ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and thiophene (Th), to yield four different monomers; 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H...
Citation Formats
V. N. Hasırcı, T. Endoğan Tanır, and N. Hasırcı, Polymer Fundamentals: Polymer Synthesis. 2017, p. 506.