Metaphors as a Reflection of Middle School Students’ Perceptions of School: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

Engin Demir, Cennet
his study analyzes the perceptions of Turkish and American middle school students of school and schooling by examining the metaphors they produce. A total of 18 American and 24 Turkish students were interviewed as part of this study. The results show differences in the participants' perceptions of schooling by culture. Turkish participants perceived the school environment as family-like, care-giving, psychologically nurturing, educationally exemplary, and physically appealing. School was also seen as a fundamental prerequisite in the preparation for life and the possibility of employment, promising upward social mobility as an adult. Overall, while some American participants perceived school as a wild, crowded, chaotic, boring, painful, regulated environment in which students must learn to survive, others see it as a place of joy, caring, involvement, and learning. The study also indicates that metaphors are useful tools in understanding how students as real actors of school make sense of schooling and their experiences in school.


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Citation Formats
C. Engin Demir, “Metaphors as a Reflection of Middle School Students’ Perceptions of School: A Cross-Cultural Analysis,” 2007. Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: