Nutrient Exchange Fluxes between Aegean and Black Seas through The Marmara Sea

Tuğrul, Süleyman
Beşiktepe, Şükrü Turan
Salihoğlu, İlkay
Long-term data obtained in the Turkish Strait System (TSS) including the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits, during 1990-2000, have permitted us to calculate seasonal and annual fluxes of water and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate) exchanged between the Aegean and Black Seas through the TSS. Two-layer flow regimes in the TSS introduce the brackish waters of the Black Sea into the Aegean basin of the northeastern Mediterranean throughout the year. A counter flow in the TSS carries the salty Mediterranean water into the Black Sea via the Marmara deep basin. The annual volume influx from the Black Sea to the Marmara upper layer is nearly two-fold the salty water exported from the Marmara to the Black Sea via the Bosphorus underflow. The brackish Black Sea inflow is relatively rich in nitrate and phosphate in winter, decreasing to the lowest levels in late summer and autumn. Biologically labile nutrients of Black Sea origin are utilized in photosynthetic processes in the Marmara Sea and are partly exported to the Marmara lower layer. Eventually, the brackish Black Sea waters reach the Dardanelles Strait, with modified bio-chemical properties. On the other hand, the salty Mediterranean waters with low concentrations of nutrients enter the Marmara deep basin. During threir 6-7 year sojourn in the Marmara basin, the salty waters become enriched in nitrate (DIN) and phosphate (DIP), due to oxidation of planktonic particles sinking from the Marmara surface layer. The annual nutrient inputs from the Black Sea to the Marmara basin were estimated as 8.17x108 moles of DIN and 4.25x107 moles of DIP, which are much less than the importation from the Marmara lower layer via the Bosphorus undercurrent. The salty Aegean water introduces nearly 6.13x108 moles of DIN and 2.79x107 moles of DIP into the Marmara lower layer. The estimated DIP outflux from the Aegean Sea is nearly 2 times less than the importation from the Marmara Sea via the Dardanelles Strait.
Mediterranean Marine Sceince


Polat, Çolpan; Tuğrul, Süleyman (2005-08-01)
ecent systematic chemical data, together with a new estimate of the water fluxes, permit the calculation of the total phosphorus (TP), nitrogen (TN) and organic carbon (TOC) exchanged between the Black and the Marmara Seas through the Bosphorus. Assuming the chemical concentrations of the exchanging waters to be constant on a yearly time scale, the estimated total annual fluxes are as follows.
Seasonal Changes in the Composition and Abundance ofZooplankton in the Seas of the Mediterranean Basin
Kovalev, Av; Mazzocchı, Mg; Toklu Alıçlı, Benin; Skryabın, Va; Kıdeyş, Ahmet Erkan (2003-01-01)
Seasonal changes in the composition, abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the seas of the Mediterranean basin (the Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas) have been reviewed using our own data and data from the literature. In the deep-water central regions of the seas, the seasonal cycle of zooplankton abundance is characterised by one maximum occurring in spring or summer. In the coastal regions, two to three peaks (spring, summer and autumn) exist for the zooplankton abundance. The amplitude of seasonal fl...
Quantitative comparison of the influxes of nutrients and organic carbon into the sea of marmara both from anthropogenic sources and from The Black Sea
Tuğrul, Süleyman; POLAT, Çolpan (1995-01-01)
The Sea of Marmara, an intercontinental basin with two narrow and shallow straits permitting the exchange of the Mediterranean and Black Sea waters, receives 2.8x10(4) tons TP (total phosphorus), 2.7x10(5) tons TN (total nitrogen) and 1.9x10(6) tons TOC (total organic carbon) per year from the Black Sea inflow, from the lower layer by vertical mixing and from anthropogenic inputs of various origins including riverine discharges. The Black Sea input through the Bosphorus constitutes about 35, 64 and 77%, res...
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Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Gogou, A.; Tuğrul, Selen; Christaki, U. (Elsevier BV, 2013-06-01)
The rates of particulate (PPp) and dissolved primary production (PPd) were estimated along a trajectory of variable environmental regimes formed in a narrow shelf area, following the course of Black Sea water masses (BSW) passing through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) into the NE Aegean Sea (BS-AS outflow). Seven stations in total were sampled, covering a transect from the eastern edge of the Marmara Sea basin to the NE Aegean Sea, during two consecutive cruises performed in October 2008 within the framew...
Atmospheric deposition of inorganic phosphorus in the Levantine Basin, eastern Mediterranean: Spatial and temporal variability and its role in seawater productivity
Markaki, Z; Oikonomou, K; Koçak, Mustafa; Kouvarakis, G; Chaniotaki, A; Kubilay, N; Mihalopoulos, N (2003-07-01)
Total and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (IP) was measured in both rainwater and aerosol samples collected from two remote coastal areas: on the island of Crete (Greece) and at Erdemli (Turkey). Particle size distributions of P, as well as total deposition were also measured. Wet and dry deposition of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) from Crete are compared with simultaneously obtained dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and with productivity data from the literature. Our results indicate that (1) in bot...
Citation Formats
S. Tuğrul, Ş. T. Beşiktepe, and İ. Salihoğlu, “Nutrient Exchange Fluxes between Aegean and Black Seas through The Marmara Sea,” Mediterranean Marine Sceince, pp. 33–42, 2002, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: