The Mediterranean basin-scale circulation can be described in terms of a surface inflow of Atlantic Water from the Atlantic Ocean entering through the Strait of Gibraltar and flowing eastward at the surface towards the eastern basin, and a return flow of intermediate water originating in the Levantine Basin at subsurface, proceeding towards Gibraltar and finally exiting into the Atlantic (Malanotte-Rizzoliet al.2014). However, the circulation of Atlantic Water in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea is still debated (Hamadet al.2005).The Turkish part of the Mediterranean Sea is located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Levantine Basin in one of the two major basins of the Eastern Mediterranean. Recent advances in both observations and modeling have allowed better understanding of the factors that influence the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean and its impacts on physics and ecosystem over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This study is a review of the present understanding of the Eastern Mediterranean in terms of flow and water mass characteristics.In the following sections, after reviewing basic geographical features and atmospheric setting of the Eastern Mediterranean relevant to its physical oceanography, we present the current knowledge on the circulation, water masse structure and climatic changes occurring in this basin.


Superficial deep-water sediments of the Eastern Marmara Basin
Evans, G.; Erten, H.; Alavi, S. N.; Von Gunten, H. R.; Ergin, M. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1989-3)
Superficial sediments (top ∼ Im) of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Sea of Marmara, Turkey accumulated rapidly (0.087 ± 0.012 g/cm2 · y) by hemipelagic sedimentation with only limited amounts of gravity flow or bottom current action under low oxygenated but not anoxic conditions. They have restricted faunas, relatively higher organic carbon (1–1.8%) and lower calcium carbonate (14–20%) contents than other Eastern Mediterranean Basin sediments. Sedimentation shows little change over the last millenium excep...
Evaluation of tsunami scenarios for western Peloponnese, Greece
Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet; Dilmen, D. I.; Aytore, B.; Ayca, A.; Insel, I.; Zaytsev, A. (2014-06-01)
Tsunami hazard assessment of the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea is the current interest of the countries having, a coastline in this region. Considering today's increasing population on the coasts and historical tsunamis, it is essential to estimate the probable tsunami risk, which might occur, to be able to mitigate the risk before the actual tsunami event happens. For this purpose, European Union funded project., SEAHELLARC is formed to develop a methodology and tools for seismic and tsunami safety...
Spatial and temporal variability in the chemical properties of the oxic and suboxic layers of the Black Sea
Tuğrul, Süleyman; Murray, James W.; Friederich, Gernot E.; Salihoglu, Ilkay (Elsevier BV, 2014-07-01)
The Black Sea, a land-locked deep basin with sulfide bearing waters below 150-200 m, has been subject to anthropogenic pressures since the 1970s. Large inputs of nutrients (nitrate - N, phosphate - P, silicate - Si) with high N/P but low Si/N ratios and subsequent development of intensive eutrophication over the basin have changed vertical distributions and inventories of nutrients and redox-sensitive metals in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Chemical data sets obtained between 1988 and 2010, and older...
Sedimentary records of past earthquakes in Boraboy Lake during the last ca 600 years (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)
Avşar, Ulaş; De Batıst, Marc; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie (2015-09-01)
Multiproxy sedimentological analyses along 4.9 m-long sequence of Boraboy Lake, which is located on the central eastern part of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveal the sedimentary traces of past large earthquakes in the region. The lake has a relatively large catchment area (10 km(2)) compared to its size (0.12 km(2)), which renders sedimentation sensitive to heavy rain/storm events. Accordingly, the background sedimentation, which is composed of faintly laminated reddish/yellowish brown clayey silt, is...
Basement structure and architecture of the Black Sea Basin
Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Horn, Brian (null; 2018-01-28)
Black Sea consists of two separate back arc basins which opened at different times during the Cretaceous in response to northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. The paucity of well data, complex geometries and seismic imaging challenges mean that questions remain regarding the basement architecture though most authors accept that, at least in part, both these basins are floored by oceanic crust, even though there are no magnetic stripes. Interpretation of deep, long offset seismic data (imaging to more...
Citation Formats
A. Akpinar, E. Yilmaz, B. A. Fach Salihoğlu, and B. Salihoğlu, PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA. 2016.