The Mediterranean basin-scale circulation can be described in terms of a surface inflow of Atlantic Water from the Atlantic Ocean entering through the Strait of Gibraltar and flowing eastward at the surface towards the eastern basin, and a return flow of intermediate water originating in the Levantine Basin at subsurface, proceeding towards Gibraltar and finally exiting into the Atlantic (Malanotte-Rizzoliet al.2014). However, the circulation of Atlantic Water in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea is still debated (Hamadet al.2005).The Turkish part of the Mediterranean Sea is located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Levantine Basin in one of the two major basins of the Eastern Mediterranean. Recent advances in both observations and modeling have allowed better understanding of the factors that influence the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean and its impacts on physics and ecosystem over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This study is a review of the present understanding of the Eastern Mediterranean in terms of flow and water mass characteristics.In the following sections, after reviewing basic geographical features and atmospheric setting of the Eastern Mediterranean relevant to its physical oceanography, we present the current knowledge on the circulation, water masse structure and climatic changes occurring in this basin.


High Precision Femtosecond Laser Ablation ICP-MS Measurement of Benthic Foraminiferal Mn-Incorporation for Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction: A Case Study From the Plio-Pleistocene Caribbean Sea
Oegretmen, N.; Schiebel, R.; Jochum, K. P.; Galer, S.; Leitner, J.; Khanolkar, S.; Yücel, Mustafa; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Haug, G. H. (2022-10-01)
Closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) and hydrology of the Caribbean Sea triggered Northern Hemisphere Glaciation and played an important role in the Pliocene to modern-day climate re-establishing the deep and surface ocean currents. New data on Mn/Ca obtained with femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on well-preserved tests of the epibenthic foraminifer Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and infaunal C. mundulus contribute to the interpretation of paleoenvironmental condit...
Superficial deep-water sediments of the Eastern Marmara Basin
Evans, G.; Erten, H.; Alavi, S. N.; Von Gunten, H. R.; Ergin, M. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1989-3)
Superficial sediments (top ∼ Im) of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Sea of Marmara, Turkey accumulated rapidly (0.087 ± 0.012 g/cm2 · y) by hemipelagic sedimentation with only limited amounts of gravity flow or bottom current action under low oxygenated but not anoxic conditions. They have restricted faunas, relatively higher organic carbon (1–1.8%) and lower calcium carbonate (14–20%) contents than other Eastern Mediterranean Basin sediments. Sedimentation shows little change over the last millenium excep...
Evaluation of tsunami scenarios for western Peloponnese, Greece
Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet; Dilmen, D. I.; Aytore, B.; Ayca, A.; Insel, I.; Zaytsev, A. (2014-06-01)
Tsunami hazard assessment of the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea is the current interest of the countries having, a coastline in this region. Considering today's increasing population on the coasts and historical tsunamis, it is essential to estimate the probable tsunami risk, which might occur, to be able to mitigate the risk before the actual tsunami event happens. For this purpose, European Union funded project., SEAHELLARC is formed to develop a methodology and tools for seismic and tsunami safety...
Spatial and temporal variability in the chemical properties of the oxic and suboxic layers of the Black Sea
Tuğrul, Süleyman; Murray, James W.; Friederich, Gernot E.; Salihoglu, Ilkay (Elsevier BV, 2014-07-01)
The Black Sea, a land-locked deep basin with sulfide bearing waters below 150-200 m, has been subject to anthropogenic pressures since the 1970s. Large inputs of nutrients (nitrate - N, phosphate - P, silicate - Si) with high N/P but low Si/N ratios and subsequent development of intensive eutrophication over the basin have changed vertical distributions and inventories of nutrients and redox-sensitive metals in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Chemical data sets obtained between 1988 and 2010, and older...
Sedimentary records of past earthquakes in Boraboy Lake during the last ca 600 years (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)
Avşar, Ulaş; De Batıst, Marc; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie (2015-09-01)
Multiproxy sedimentological analyses along 4.9 m-long sequence of Boraboy Lake, which is located on the central eastern part of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveal the sedimentary traces of past large earthquakes in the region. The lake has a relatively large catchment area (10 km(2)) compared to its size (0.12 km(2)), which renders sedimentation sensitive to heavy rain/storm events. Accordingly, the background sedimentation, which is composed of faintly laminated reddish/yellowish brown clayey silt, is...
Citation Formats
A. Akpinar, E. Yilmaz, B. A. Fach Salihoğlu, and B. Salihoğlu, PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA. 2016.