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The Making of Doctoral Supervisors International Case Studies of Practice

The first doctoral degree in Turkey was granted in 1937, at a time when there were only two universities. The number of universities grew slowly in the mid-20th century, and by 1980 there were only 19. Subsequently there was very rapid growth so that by 2019 there were in all 207 universities, which had 699 graduate schools and offered a total of 5,623 doctoral programs. In Turkey, doctoral education is provided in accordance with the Graduate Education Regulations determined by the Higher Education Council (HEC), but these provide only very general guidelines about doctoral supervision, which is largely left up to institutions. In practice, the latter continue to rely upon the traditional ‘master–apprentice’ model, and relatively few universities offer support through professional development or recognize and reward supervision. This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of doctoral education in Turkey and outlines the national context in terms of the regulations mandated by HEC. It then seeks to describe how these regulations are implemented in different universities, and to highlight examples of good practice related to professional development in doctoral supervision.