Ecological footprint of Rawalpindi; Pakistan's first footprint analysis from urbanization perspective

Rashid, Audil
Irum, Ayesha
Malik, Ikram Ali
Ashraf, Aniqa
Liu Rongqiong, Liu Rongqiong
Liu, Guijian
Ullah, Habib
Ali, Muhammad Ubaid
Yousaf, Balal
Estimates of footprint have rationalized the approach of environmental input-output assessments. In this study, the Ecological Footprint denotes the bioproductive area needed to sustain a population. We evaluated the living style standards of urbanized areas of Rawalpindi (i.e. Bahria Town and Gulraiz Colony) to calculate their Ecological Footprint. Comprehensive information was obtained from the population of these two areas by questionnaires and subsequent analysis using the Ecological Footprint calculator formulated by Redefined Progress. The Ecological Footprint of Bahria Town is 8.6 g ha (global hectares) and Gulraiz Colony is 6.9 g ha, which indicates that the urban population in these two areas are living a luxurious life style and consuming resources far more than the biocapacity of Pakistan. Another aspect that emerged from this study is that the biocapacity of Pakistan is unable to meet the needs of people due to population increase. Both Bahria Town and Gulraiz Colony have Ecological Footprints higher than national standard values, which illustrates that if all others lived like people in the studied areas then Pakistan's Ecological Footprints (4.7 g ha) would double and overpopulation will have further stress on the ecosystem. We propose maximum utilization of green resources and adaption of energy saving habits as immediate intervention measures to reduce the Ecological Footprint. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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Citation Formats
A. Rashid et al., “Ecological footprint of Rawalpindi; Pakistan’s first footprint analysis from urbanization perspective,” JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, pp. 362–368, 2018, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: