Investigation of in-vitro digestive behavior of beef and poultry which are tenderized by enzymatic and acidic marination

Baştürk, Bilge
Meat contains valuable nutrients, exceptionally high-quality proteins that include all essential amino acids and vitamins and minerals for the human diet. Meat is mostly tenderized to make it more tasteful and palatable. The effects of tenderization on the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes in meat have been investigated in many studies. In this study, acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid solutions, and a commercial meat tenderization solution were used to tenderize the red and white meat (beef and chicken breast, respectively). The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different tenderization solutions on the physicochemical properties and the digestibility of meat samples. The meat samples that were kept in acidic and enzyme solutions were analyzed in terms of textural properties, color, water holding capacity (WHC), marinate uptake, cooking loss, TD-NMR relaxation times (T2), morphological properties (Scanning Electron Microscope-SEM) both before and after in vitro digestion experiments. To understand the extent of digestion, total soluble protein content, and free amino group experiments were also performed. The textural properties gave information about how effective the different solutions used for tenderization were, and the value obtained was reported as Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force. The acidic tenderization showed that the WBS force values decreased for chicken and beef meat in both uncooked and cooked samples compared to the control samples. Besides, acidic tenderization increased the WHC of the meat samples and reduced the cooking loss due to the altering of meat protein by low pH of the solutions. Color change was also observed in the muscle due to tenderization. TD-NMR relaxometry was used to determine the effect of the tenderization on the in vitro digestion process. The NMR results showed that the tenderization type changed the state of water in the meat sample and free water amount increased by tenderization. In addition, the total soluble protein content and the free amino group provided an idea about the extent of protein digestion. The digestibility of both beef and chicken meat improved with the help of tenderization. Since meat digestibility is linked to amino acid bioavailability, the results indicated that the best protein digestibility was obtained using the commercial meat tenderization solution. The study provided valuable results to understand the effect of different tenderization methods both on the physico-chemical properties and on digestion.
Citation Formats
B. Baştürk, “Investigation of in-vitro digestive behavior of beef and poultry which are tenderized by enzymatic and acidic marination,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2021.