Cognitive Penetration and Cognitive Realism

The paper addresses the issue of theory-ladenness of observation/experimentation. Motivated by a naturalistic reading of Thomas Kuhn's insights into the same topic, I draw on cognitive neuroscience (predictive coding under Free Energy Principle) to scrutinise theory-ladenness. I equate theory-ladenness with the cognitive penetrability of perceptual inferences and argue that strong theory-ladenness prevails only under uncertain circumstances. This understanding of theory-ladenness is in line with Thomas Kuhn's view on the same subject as well as a cognitive version of modest realism rather than downright antirealism.


Relationship between familiarity, attitudes and preferences: Assisted living facilities as compared to nursing homes
İmamoğlu, Çağrı (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-11-01)
In this paper, the authors aim to (a) explore attitudes toward and preferences for living in the newly emerging place type of assisted living facilities in comparison to nursing homes, and (b) assess the possible impact of familiarity on those attitudes and preferences. Ninety-eight respondents (with a mean age of 62) were surveyed. Respondents were found to be more favorable toward assisted living facilities than nursing homes. A three-factor model was proposed in which attitudes mediated between familiari...
The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Self-Regulated Learning: A Review of Literature
TAŞ, Yasemin; Sungur, Semra (2012-01-01)
The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, self-regulated learning is described from the social cognitive perspective and why self-regulated learning should be targeted in schools is discussed. Secondly, problem-based learning is proposed to facilitate self-regulated learning. Literature on the effects of problem-based learning on students' self-regulated learning in K-12 science classes is reviewed. An empirical base for how particular aspects of problem-based learning can improve students' self-regu...
Comparison of Efficiency of Two dc-to-ac Converters for Grid Connected Solar Applications
Ertan, Hulusi Bülent; Yilmaz, Arif (2012-05-26)
In this paper; requirements from grid connected photovoltaic (PV) converters are briefly reviewed. Traditional buck-converter, line-frequency transformer topology is taken as reference, which satisfies all of the requirements imposed by standards and the utility. However, this topology employs a bulky transformer. Furthermore, a large electrolytic capacitor is needed in this circuit, which is expensive and also limits the life of the converter. This is not desirable in modern applications where PV module st...
On lower bounds for incomplete character sums over finite fields
Özbudak, Ferruh (Elsevier BV, 1996-01-01)
The purpose of this paper is to extend results of Stepanov (1980; 1994) about lower bounds for incomplete character sums over a prime finite fieldFpto the case of arbitrary finite fieldFq.
Bilici, Oe; Erdil, Erkan; Yetkiner, H. (2011-01-01)
This paper aims to determine (i) the trade flow equation for Turkey by using the gravity equation, (ii) the role of EU in Turkey's trade and whether the Customs Union of EU that Turkey entered in 1996 made a deviation in Turkey's trade flows. Turkey was a closed economy in late 1970s and has gradually become an open economy in these 30 years. During this period, Turkey followed globalization and regional integration strategies simultaneously. On the one hand, Turkey gradually opened its economy to the rest ...
Citation Formats
M. Davoody Benı, “Cognitive Penetration and Cognitive Realism,” Episteme, pp. 1–16, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: