Strut and Tie Topology for Reinforced Concrete Elements

Strut and Tie Model (STM) is a lower-bound design method for reinforced concrete members. It is usuallypreferred for non-standard structural elements for which internal forces are not well-defined. In recent years,studies and applications on STM have increased considerably. Topology optimization methods are generallyused to find struts and ties. Once locations and orientations of reinforcements are available, the design procedureis rather easy to apply, even for complex geometries. However, finding the STM topology is not a straightforwardprocedure. In this study, STM topology is obtained automatically by applying a simple algorithm. Thealgorithm involves coupled computations carried out on an analog lattice model and a continuum model. Thestiffness of lattice elements is iteratively modified based on internal force distribution. Similarly, elasticitymodulus of continuum is modified based on principal stress distribution. During this process, redundant latticeelements and continuum elements disappear. Lattice model and continuum model affect each other to arrive at anoptimized STM topology. Solutions obtained with the developed algorithm is compared with availablecomputational results from literature and good agreements are observed. Furthermore, STM topology for a nontrivialgeometry is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology.


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Citation Formats
Y. Işıklı, B. Binici, and K. Tuncay, “Strut and Tie Topology for Reinforced Concrete Elements,” İstanbul, Türkiye, 2021, vol. 1, p. 1111, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: