Cortex-M4 optimizations for {R, M} LWE schemes

Alkım, Erdem
Bilgin, Yusuf Alper
Cenk, Murat
Gérard, François
This paper proposes various optimizations for lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) using the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) on the popular ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. Improvements come in the form of a faster code using more efficient modular reductions, optimized small-degree polynomial multiplications, and more aggressive layer merging in the NTT, but also in the form of reduced stack usage. We test our optimizations in software implementations of Kyber and NewHope, both round 2 candidates in the NIST post-quantum project, and also NewHope-Compact, a recently proposed variant of NewHope with smaller parameters. Our software is the first implementation of NewHope-Compact on the Cortex-M4 and shows speed improvements over previous high-speed implementations of Kyber and NewHope. Moreover, it gives a common framework to compare those schemes with the same level of optimization. Our results show that NewHope- Compact is the fastest scheme, followed by Kyber, and finally NewHope, which seems to suffer from its large modulus and error distribution for small dimensions.
IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems


Parallel-MLFMA Solutions of Large-Scale Problems Involving Composite Objects
Ergül, Özgür Salih (2012-07-14)
We present a parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for fast and accurate solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving composite objects with dielectric and metallic parts. Problems are formulated with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation (JMCFIE) and solved iteratively with MLFMA on distributed-memory architectures. Numerical examples involving canonical and complicated objects, such as optical metamaterials, are presented to...
Bayram, Barış; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (2006-01-01)
This paper reports on the finite element analysis (FEA) of crosstalk in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays. Finite element calculations using a commercial package (LS-DYNA) were performed for an immersed I-D CMUT array operating in the conventional and collapsed modes. LS-DYNA was used to model the crosstalk in CMUT arrays under specific voltage bias and excitation conditions, and such a modeling is well worth the effort for special-purpose CMUT arrays for ultrasound applications s...
Ergül, Özgür Salih (2013-11-09)
A parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is developed for fast and accurate solutions of electromagnetics problems involving complex plasmonic metamaterial structures. Composite objects that consist of multiple penetrable regions, such as dielectric, lossy, and plasmonic parts, are formulated rigorously with surface integral equations and solved iteratively via MLFMA. Using the hierarchical strategy for the parallelization, the developed implementation is capable of simul...
Reference-plane-invariant waveguide method for electromagnetic characterization of bi-axial bianisotropic metamaterials
HASAR, UĞUR CEM; Yildiz, Gul; BUTE, MUSA; Muratoğlu, Abdurrahim (2018-11-01)
In this paper, we investigate a reference-plane invariant (RPI) method for electromagnetic property extraction of bi-axial bianisotropic metamaterial (MM) slabs. In order to obtain unique properties, we applied the frequency varying technique in order to determine the location of the slab within its cell. For validation of the proposed method, we first simulated and then measured scattering parameters of a MM slab constructed by split-ring-resonators, next extracted its electromagnetic properties, and final...
Cetin, A.; Ermiş, Muammer (2007-09-27)
This paper describes the design, implementation and performance of a medium-size distribution type static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM) with the simplest 2-level, 3-leg VSC topology. Reactive power control is achieved by phase-shift-angle control, and voltage source converter (VSC) harmonics arc eliminated by selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) technique. VSC has been designed at the highest low-voltage level of 1 kV, and connected to medium-voltage (MV) bus through a low-pass input filter an...
Citation Formats
E. Alkım, Y. A. Bilgin, M. Cenk, and F. Gérard, “Cortex-M4 optimizations for {R, M} LWE schemes,” IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, vol. 2020, no. 3, pp. 336–357, 2020, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: