Nineteenth-Century Female Entrepreneurship in Turkey

This chapter offers a state-of-the-art overview of historical research on women’s roles as business actors in the Middle East, with a particular focus on Muslim women in the late Ottoman Empire. Very few historical studies examine women’s roles in business in the Middle East. After explaining why this has been the case, the chapter presents a survey of the literature on women’s economic activities in the Ottoman Empire before the nineteenth century. This chapter also draws attention to the role of women as founders and managers of an Islamic institution, charitable endowment or waqf, and explores how this institution served as a form of social entrepreneurship, linking revenue-generating activities with the social needs. The chapter concludes with evidence on women’s business involvement during the long nineteenth century.


Change in the status of Turkish women during the Ottoman modernization and self-evaluation of women in Kadınlar Dünyası of 1913
Aygül, Ceren; Boztemur, Recep; Department of History (2009)
This study, which aims to portray the circumstances of Ottoman women’s movement during the first years of Second Constitutional Era from the eyes of the writers of Kadınlar Dünyası Periodical, makes an analysis of the meanings ascribed to the efforts for the restoration of women’s position in social life and the roles claimed for women during Ottoman modernization period. This research intends to confirm the fact that the basis for the mentality of defenders voicing women’s rights was the progressive outloo...
The military in Turkey from a gender perspective
Kuloğlu, Ceyda; Ertürk, Yakın; Department of Sociology (2005)
This thesis demonstrates the experiences of the women from different generations in the Turkish Military in the integration process. It also evaluates the attitudes of the men in the military towards this integration.
Marginalization of women’s knowledge: the case of Syrian women in Turkey
Süner Koç, Eda; Gündüz Hoşgör, Ayşe.; Department of Gender and Women's Studies (2019)
In this study, the relationship between international migration and women is problematized in the case of Syrian women in Turkey through knowledge production practices. Although almost half of the mass immigration population is composed of Syrian women, generated knowledge about them is quite limited. In this context, it is claimed that Syrian women's knowledge is marginalized based on the assumption that their knowledge is invisible, left behind, and unrecognized. The feminist standpoint theory, which poin...
The State and Women’s Organizations in Turkey: An Irreversible Distance or Total Embeddedness?
Aybars, Ayşe İdil; Ayata, Ayşe (Elsevier BV, 2019-03-01)
This study examines the development of the relations between the state and the women’s movement in Turkey in the period of Justice and Development Party (JDP) governments through the experiences and accounts of the major women’s organizations themselves. It puts the period since 2002 onwards, which is marked by subsequent JPD governments, under scrutiny, and points to an increasingly “irreversible distance” among independent organizations and the government, in line with a gradual transformation of the latt...
Women's NGOs and Their Relations With the State in Egypt
Karaoğlan, Beril; Akşit, Bahattin; Department of Middle East Studies (2007)
This thesis is designed to analyze the relations between the Egyptian women’s NGOs and the state in Contemporary Egypt through the interviews conducted with members and administrators of eleven selected women’s NGOs based in Cairo. The main aim is to show how these NGOs with different aims and different working areas build their relations with the state, what kind of problems they face and how they cope with them as well as, if there are any, elaborate the relation patterns between the state and different w...
Citation Formats
M. S. Ağır, Nineteenth-Century Female Entrepreneurship in Turkey. 2020.