Solvent recovery from photolithography wastes using cellulose ultrafiltration membranes

Solvent recycling and reuse are indispensable for ensuring a sustainable chemical industry and circular economy. In this study we report the fabrication of cellulose ultrafiltration membranes and their application in recovery of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) used as developer solvent in SU-8 photolithography. Cellulose membranes were fabricated via alkaline hydrolysis of cellulose acetate membranes in aqueous NaOH. Membrane permeance and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) were tuned via changing cellulose acetate concentration in precursor solution and evaporation of volatile co-solvent, acetone. MWCO of the membranes was found to be smallest in DMSO, followed by water and largest in methanol. The difference was attributed to the different hydrodynamic diameters of the probe molecules in these solvents. SU-8 rejection from its representative developer solutions in PGMEA was assessed in dead-end filtration at up to 80% permeate recovery. After the first filtration, the collected permeate was fed to the same membrane to simulate a two-stage filtration scenario. Rejection was in the range of 87%–89% in a first stage filtration and 79%–80% in a second stage, both operated at 80% permeate recovery. Recycled solvent could be used in photolithography although with some loss of pattern fidelity, possibly owing to remaining SU-8 and photoacid generator in PGMEA.
Journal of Membrane Science


Solvent recovery from photolithography waste using cellulose ultrafiltration membranes
Savaş Alkan, Aygen; Çulfaz Emecen, Pınar Zeynep; Department of Chemical Engineering (2021-8)
Cellulose flat sheet ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated for the investigation of their separation performance in Organic Solvent Ultrafiltration (OSU) applications and for the solvent recovery from photolithography wastes. Firstly, cellulose acetate membranes were produced and then, these were converted into cellulose membranes via alkaline hydrolysis. The membranes were cast from polymer solutions containing cellulose acetate as polymer with 20-30% concentration range, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as s...
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Dehydration of used solvents in the printing and packaging industry is required in order to reuse or increase the commercial value of the solvents. In this study, a pervaporation-liquid-phase adsorption hybrid process for dehydration of a low-value byproduct solution obtained from a real operation was examined. The byproduct solution contained water varying in the range of 1-11.5 wt %, and the majority of the rest is ethanol and isopropanol with minor components such as ethyl acetate and methoxy propanol. W...
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Textile is a material that could be diversified the most, therefore considerations of textile waste recycling/ reuse and the effects of its landfill should be carefully considered. In this thesis, transportation and recycling effects on the household textile waste of Eskişehir was investigated by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Disregarding consumer using stage, the entire life cycle of waste produced from cotton was evaluated. LCA inventory was included for occupation of land, water consumption, c...
Catalytic ozonation of synthetic wastewaters containing three different dyes in a fluidized bed reactor
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Environmental regulations have imposed limitations on a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial textile wastewaters. There are several degradation methods used in literature studies. Among these methods ozonation is one of the most considered way to degrade refractory chemicals in textile wastewaters. In recent years, catalytic ozonation as being one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), is applied to reduce the ozone consumption and to increase the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ...
Citation Formats
A. Savaş and P. Z. Çulfaz Emecen, “Solvent recovery from photolithography wastes using cellulose ultrafiltration membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 647, pp. 0–0, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: