Catalytic ozonation of synthetic wastewaters containing three different dyes in a fluidized bed reactor

Balcı, Ayşe İrem
Environmental regulations have imposed limitations on a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial textile wastewaters. There are several degradation methods used in literature studies. Among these methods ozonation is one of the most considered way to degrade refractory chemicals in textile wastewaters. In recent years, catalytic ozonation as being one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), is applied to reduce the ozone consumption and to increase the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removals. Ozonation and catalytic ozonation of single and mixed dye solutions have been examined both in a semi-batch reactor and also in a three phase fluidized bed reactor. The dyes that are used in this study are Basic Blue 41 (BB-41), Basic Yellow 28 (BY-28) and Basic Red 18.1 (BR-18.1), these dyes are obtained from AKSA A.Ş. (Yalova, İstanbul) textile plant. In order to measure the concentration of each dye in the mixed dye solution, “absorbance vs. concentration” calibration correlations were developed. The effect of inlet dye concentration, inlet gas and liquid flow rates, pH, catalyst type [perflorooctyl alumina (PFOA) and alumina] and catalyst dosage were determined experimentally. Catalyst characterization analyses were done in order to determine the maximum number of times that the catalyst can be used and it was found to be 3 times. Gas washing bottle experiments are conducted to find the v amount of ozone required to oxidize one mole of each dye used in the study. Oxidation of BB-41, BR-18.1 and BY-28 dyes were investigated in a semi-batch reactor as single dye solutions by sole and catalytic ozonation with alumina and PFOA catalyst particles. The highest TOC and COD removals being 58.3% and 62.9%, respectively, were obtained at pH of 10 for BB-41 and 55.2% and 58.8%, respectively, for BR-18.1 with alumina catalyst. On the other hand, for BY-28 PFOA catalyst yielded highest TOC and COD reductions being 61.3% and 66.9%, respectively, at pH of 4. Minimum fluidization velocity (uL,min), the hold-up values of gas, liquid and solid phases, the dispersion coefficients (DL), and volumetric ozone-water mass transfer coefficients (kLa) were estimated at various gas and liquid flow rates in order to observe the effect of liquid mixing in the reactor on ozonation process. While PFOA catalyst was found to be effective in oxidizing BY-28 in acidic conditions (pH=4), BR-18.1 and BB-41 are degraded in alkaline medium (pH=10) with alumina catalyst better compared to acidic conditions. For catalytic ozonation reactions in fluidized bed reactor, the highest dye removals in mixed dye solution were observed for BY- 28 being 99.29% for gas flow rate (QG) of 340 L/h, liquid flow rate (QL) of 150 L/h and pH=4, initial dye concentration being 30 mg/L of each dye with PFOA catalyst, while for BR-18.1 and BB-41 being 95.39% and 97.95% respectively for QG = 340 L/h, QL = 150 L/h and pH=10, initial dye concentration being 30 mg/L of each dye with alumina catalyst. The highest TOC and COD reductions, 25.2% and 32.4%, respectively, were achieved in the catalytic ozonation of the mixed dye using PFOA as the catalyst at a pH of 4 and at a gas to liquid flow rate ratio of 2.26 (QG = 340 L/h, QL = 150 L/h). Highest dye removals were obtained at the same gas and liquid flow rates as those of the highest TOC and COD reductions in the experiments. Empirical TOC removal equations were obtained as a function of inlet TOC concentration, solution pH, gas and liquid flow rates.


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Citation Formats
A. İ. Balcı, “Catalytic ozonation of synthetic wastewaters containing three different dyes in a fluidized bed reactor,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2011.