Source rock characterization of the shales and mudstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian Haymana Formation, Haymana Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Yıldırım, Levent Taylan Özgür
This study investigates the petroleum potential of the shales and mudstones of the Campanian-Maastrichtian Haymana Formation in the Haymana Basin, Turkey. Lithofacies, pore structure, and source rock characteristics of the shales and mudstones are examined using stratigraphical, sedimentological, petrophysical, and organic geochemical methods along five stratigraphic sections and other sampling sites. The depositional model presents a facies distribution within submarine canyon, inner fan, mid fan, and outer fan settings. The shales and mudstones are subdivided into six based on texture and structure: clay-shale, claystone, mud-shale, mudstone, silt-shale, and siltstone. According to bulk mineralogy, mixed mudstone, mixed siliceous mudstone, marl, mixed carbonate mudstone, argillaceous/siliceous mudstone, and clay-rich siliceous mudstone lithofacies are identified. Two samples with TOC > 1% are classified as black shales. XRD and mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses suggest that macropores (> 50 nm) were created by dissolution of carbonate minerals, while mesopores (2 nm-50 nm) developed around clay/quartz/feldspar grains. Of the analyzed shales and mudstones, no lithofacies shows distinctive effective porosity or absolute permeability values, which suggests a strong heterogeneity in terms of pore throat size, mineral content, and grain size. One silty black shale sample from the Beyobası village with 5% porosity, 4.4*10-5 md permeability, 1.19% TOC, 0.07 mg/g S1, 1.01 mg/g S2, and 441°C Tmax represents a relatively more mature source rock, though with only limited hydrocarbon potential. Overall, the TOC values (avg. 0.39%) of the analyzed samples suggest organic-poor source rock characteristics for the Haymana Formation in the studied parts of the Haymana Basin.


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Citation Formats
L. T. Ö. Yıldırım, “Source rock characterization of the shales and mudstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian Haymana Formation, Haymana Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2022.