Genetic History of Anatolia during Holocene

Koptekin, Dilek
Anatolia has been a key region in Eurasian history, acting as a bridge for cultural exchanges between Europe and Asia during the Holocene. However, the demographic transformation of Anatolian and neighbouring populations during these ten millennia is largely unknown. This work has two main research foci: 1) to investigate the role of gene flow in cultural interactions during the Neolithic period between Central Anatolian and Aegean communities and to evaluate the possibility of large-scale human movements during Neolithization of the Aegean, 2) to assess population continuity in Anatolia and its surrounding regions. For this aim, we produced 49 new ancient genomes and analysed this data in conjunction with published aDNA datasets. We first investigated whether early Aegean Neolithic populations were established by farmer colonization from Central Anatolia or by local hunter-gatherers. Our results showed that the Aegean Neolithic populations may have been descendants of local hunter-gatherers who adapted farming. We then tackled the question of how populations interacted in time and space from the Epipaleolithic period to the present-day. We found that genetic diversity within each region in Southwest Asia and East Mediterranean steadily increased through the Holocene. We further observed that the sources of gene flow shifted in time. In the first half of the Holocene, regional populations homogenised among themselves. Starting with the Bronze Age, however, they diverged from each other, driven most likely by gene flow from external sources. This expanding mobility in time was accompanied by growing male-bias in admixture events. This work sheds new light on fine-scale population structure in Anatolian demographic history, filling a gap in our understanding of the nature of prehistoric and historic population interactions, not only among Anatolian populations but also with their neighbouring societies.


Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
DNA diversity and population admixture in Anatolia
Di Benedetto, G; Erguven, A; Stenico, M; Castri, L; Bertorelle, G; Togan, İnci Zehra; Barbujani, G (Wiley, 2001-06-01)
The Turkic language was introduced in Anatolia at the start of this millennium, by nomadic Turk-men groups from Central Asia. Whether that cultural transition also had significant population-genetics consequences is not fully understood. Three nuclear microsatellite loci, the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial genome, six microsatellite loci of the Y chromosome, and one Alu insertion (YAP) were amplified and typed in 118 individuals from four populations of Anatolia. For each locus, the number of c...
Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads
Krzewińska, Maja; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Juras, Anna; Koptekin, Dilek; Chyleński, Maciej; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Shcherbakov, Nikolai; Shuteleva, Iia; Leonova, Tatiana; Kraeva, Liudmila; Sungatov, Flarit A.; Sultanova, Alfija N.; Potekhina, Inna; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Dalén, Love; Sinika, Vitaly; Jakobsson, Mattias; Storå, Jan; Götherström, Anders (American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2018-10)
For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural comple...
Symbol space and meaning in hittite architecture
Onurlu, Sema; Güven, Suna Naziyet; Department of History of Architecture (2004)
The importance of the Hittites derives from the fact that they were an organized central power extending over a large territory within which a number of societies maintained their language, culture and traditions. The archaeological findings of Hattusha, the Hittite capital reveal that the city had reached its maximum limits during the Great Kingdom period and the most magnificient and monumental buildings of the city are dated to this period. Yazilikaya, the open air sanctuary which reached to its final fo...
Influences of 1923 population exchange on second and third generation migrants
Paköz Türkeli, Ahu; Şen, Mustafa; Department of Sociology (2016)
This thesis aims to show and compare the influences of population exchange on the second and third generation 1923 Lausanne Treaty Muslim exchange migrants from Greece to Turkey, who were settled in Istanbul, Catalca area. We scrutinize their knowledge and interest on the migration process and explore if they have protected their identities today. We accepted individual’s identity, culture and value as an inextricable part of global issues and culture; and as a mutually effective process. We argued the popu...
Citation Formats
D. Koptekin, “Genetic History of Anatolia during Holocene,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2022.