Breakage characteristics of cement components

Avşar, Çağatay
The production of multi-component cement from clinker and two additives such as trass and blast furnace slag has now spread throughout the world. These additives are generally interground with clinker to produce a composite cement of specified surface area. The grinding stage is of great importance as it accounts for a major portion of the total energy consumed in cement production and also as it affects the quality of composite cements by the particle size distribution of the individual additives produced during grinding. This thesis study was undertaken to characterize the breakage properties of clinker and the additives trass and slag with the intention of delineating their grinding properties in separate and intergrinding modes. Single particle breakage tests were conducted by means of a drop weight tester in order to define an inherent grindability for the clinker and trass samples in terms of the median product size ( ). In addition, a back-calculation procedure was applied to obtain the breakage rate parameters ( ) of perfect mixing ball mill model using industrial data from a cement plant. Kinetic and locked-cycle grinding tests were performed in a standard Bond mill to determine breakage rates and distribution functions for clinker, trass and slag. Bond work indices of these cement components and of their binary and ternary mixtures were determined and compared. Attempts were made to use back-calculated grinding rate parameters to simulate the Bond grindability test. The self-similarity law was proved to be true for clinker and trass that their shapes of the self-similarity curves are unique to the feed material and independent of the grinding energy expended and overall fineness attained. The self-similar behaviour of tested materials will enable process engineers to get useful information about inherent grindability and energy consumption in any stage of


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Cement production which is one of the most energy intensive industries plays a significant role in emitting the greenhouse gases. Blended cement production by supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and natural pozzolan is one of the smart approaches to decrease energy and ecology related concerns about the production. Fly ash has been used as a substance to produce blended cements for years, but bottom ash, its coarser counterpart, has not been utilized du...
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Salehian, Shadi; Tarı, İlker; Department of Mechanical Engineering (2020)
This study presents solar thermal application in the most energy consuming units of a cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey. Cement industry is the most important energy intensive and the second largest contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the world which accounts for 5-6% of global CO2 emissions. Both material and energy flows are analyzed in the system for a conventional cement industry and a solar integrated one taking the most energy-efficient innovations into account. The whole ...
A Study on the utilization of waste cement - bonded wood particle board as a raw material and a secondary fuel in cement manufacturing
Yılmaz, Mustafa; Tokyay, Mustafa; Öztürk, Abdullah; Department of Cement Engineering (2012)
A considerable amount of waste is obtained as a result of edge-cutting operations during cement-bonded wood particle board (CBWPB) manufacturing. This waste material which basically contains wood chips and hydrated cement has to be disposed of and does not have any economical value. However, it can be burned in cement rotary kilns and may result in energy savings to a certain extent due to the presence of wood particles as a secondary fuel and since the hydrated cement may be decomposed and then reform clin...
Citation Formats
Ç. Avşar, “Breakage characteristics of cement components,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2003.