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Response surface optimization of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis fermentation

Tokçaer, Zeynep
The control of pest populations by using insect pathogens has been an attractive alternative to the application of chemical pesticides employed for the same purpose. As these chemicals not only damage the environment, but also trigger development of resistance by the pests and can harm other organisms together with the target pest, biological control is preferable and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subspecies have been the most widely used bioinsecticides in forestry, agriculture and mosquito/ black fly control. The most important property of Bt subspecies is the synthesis of protoxins named as delta-endotoxins (crystal proteins). In this study, response surface optimization of Bt subsp. israelensis HD500 batch fermentation for high level production of its toxin proteins Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa was performed. As the interaction of the medium components as well as cultivation conditions are expected to influence the production of the toxin proteins, an experimental chart was prepared by accepting the previously reported optimal values for the most important parameters as zero points: [Mn], 10-6 M; [K2HPO4], 50 mM; C:N ratio, 20:1 and incubation temperature; 30°C. When the combinations of these variables at different levels were studied at 30 batch cultures and analysed for the optimum toxin protein concentrations, temperature: 28.3?C, [Mn]: 3.3x10-7M, C:N ratio: 22.2 and [K2HPO4]: 66.1mM yielded the highest concentrations of both Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxin proteins.