Analysis of forging for three different alloy steels

Civelekoğlu, Barış
Forging is a manufacturing process which is preferred among the others in that, the final product shows more enhanced properties. The properties of the final product are directly related with the material used in the forging process. Main parameters such as forging temperature, number of stages, preform design, dimensions of the billet, etc. may be affected by the forging material. Alloys are one of the main areas of interest in the forging industry. The use of alloy steels may bring superior properties, especially in terms of strength and forgeability. In this study, three different alloy steels, which are hot forged in industry have been examined. The flow of the material, stress distribution, die filling and the effects of the process parameters on the forging have been investigated. Three industrial forging parts; M20 and M30 eye bolts and a runner block have been studied. Finite Volume Analysis of the forging process has been performed for carbon steels;C45 and C60 and alloy steels; a stainless steel X20Cr13, a heattreatable alloy steel, 42CrMo4 and a bearing steel, 100Cr6. The results of the simulations have been compared with the findings of the experiments carried out in a forging company. It has been observed that numerical and experimental results are in good agreement.


Analysis of tapered preforms in cold upsetting
Gökler, Mustafa İlhan; Darendeliler, Haluk (1999-01-01)
Upset forging is usually carried out with a sequence of stages and the tapered preforms are commonly used. The preforms should be free from flash formation and buckling injuries. :In this paper, the results that depend on elastic-plastic finite element analysis of taper upset forging are given. The buckling analysis was realized by using the Modified Riks method. For a given upset ratio which is the ratio of unsupported length to diameter of the initial billet, reduction in the height of the billet and the ...
Analysis and preform design for long press forgings with non-planar parting surfaces
Karagözler, Ahmet Barış; Gökler, Mustafa İlhan; Darendeliler, Haluk; Department of Mechanical Engineering (2003)
In industry, a wide variety of parts are produced by press forging. Press forging generally requires sequential forming of workpieces through a set of preforming stages before the final stage. The design of preform dies affects die and product cost and quality. To ensure complete filling of the die at the final stage, companies in the forging industry commonly add extra material to the original workpiece volume and accordingly design the perform dies by the help of their experience. However, this method ref...
Modelling of variable friction in cold forging
Cora, Oe N.; Akkök, Metin; Darendeliler, Haluk (2008-11-01)
In metal forming operations, the friction between die and workpiece is a complex phenomenon and has a strong influence on the metal forming parameters and the product quality This study aims to investigate the effect of friction in cold forging operations using different friction models. In the analyses, the forging operations are simulated using the Coulomb and constant friction models, and the results are compared with the simulation results obtained by using the variable friction models developed by Wanh...
Finite element analysis of the effects of tapered preforms on the final product in cold upsetting
Dogan, O.; Gökler, Mustafa İlhan; Darendeliler, Haluk (null; 2002-12-01)
The effects of the tapered preform shapes on the final product in cold upset forging are presented. As such, different preform geometries with different upset ratios are considered for the same final part geometry. In addition, the elastic-plastic finite element method is used to examine die filling and determine the flash volume in the final stage for different preform geometries. It is observed that, well-filled final products are obtained when the preform shapes and die cavities are designed according to...
Investigation on the ballistic performance of a dual phase steel against 7.62 mm AP projectile
Ubeyli, Mustafa; DEMİR, TEYFİK; Deniz, Hueseyin; Yıldırım, Raif Orhan; KELEŞ, Ömer (2010-03-25)
Dual phase steels have the potential to reduce the weight of structural components because of the improved mechanical properties obtained from the two phases: soft ferrite and hard martensite. In this study, the ballistic performance of a low carbon and low alloy steel was investigated in intercritically annealed conditions. To do this, intercritical heat treatments at three different temperatures were applied to the steel samples separately to get three groups of samples having various martensite volume fr...
Citation Formats
B. Civelekoğlu, “Analysis of forging for three different alloy steels,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2003.