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Designing urban space with the tools of the development legislation

Baş, Yener
Since 1960s, the scope of urban design broadened in a way that to control the formation process of urban space as a whole. In this respect urban coding became a distinct branch in urban planning as an integrating mechanism of planning and design processes. Thus, design control has become a crucial part of the development control systems especially in the western countries. Although the development legislation in Turkey as an urban coding system has various weaknesses about urban design and design control, it provides important tools to control urban form from macro scale to micro scale. Aim of this study is to analyze the capabilities and deficiencies of the development legislation in Turkey as a design control system. The mostly stated complaint about the planned areas in the cities of Turkey is the loss of diversity and peculiar character of settlements as a result of the homogenization of their spatial pattern, namely apartmentalization. This problem is basically related with the exclusion of urban design from the planning process. The planning approach in Turkey merely oriented to readjustment of property appropriate to small-scale development, ignoring the concerns in regard to urban design. Therefore, beyond a technical fault resulting from the legislation, this is an outcome iv of the way legal tools are used that does not realize the value of potentia l possibilities in the legislation. However, if the legal tools are used efficiently in an approach that bring the considerations of urban design into fore, it might be possible to come out with more satisfactory environments in terms of diversity and richness of urban space. This is the basic hypothesis examined in this study. In this context, firstly the relation between urban coding and design is investigated in its historical development and a hierarchical model for design control is defined. Then the