Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of apricot kernel oil

Özkal, Sami Gökhan
The purpose of this research was to determine the solubility of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) oil in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), effects of parameters (particle size, solvent flow rate, pressure, temperature and co-solvent (ethanol) concentration) on extraction yield and to investigate the possibility of fractionation. Solubility, increased with pressure and increased with temperature above the crossover pressure, which was found between 200 and 300 bar, and decreased with temperature below the crossover pressure. Appropriate models were fitted to data. Extraction of apricot kernel oil occurred in two extraction periods as fast and slow extraction periods. Most of the oil was extracted in the fast extraction period and the oil recovered in the slow extraction period was negligible. Extraction yield increased with decrease in particle size and recovery of more than 99 % of the oil was possible if particle diameter decreased below 0.425 mm. Extraction rate increased with increase in flow rate, pressure, temperature and ethanol concentration. The volume mass transfer coefficient in the fluid phase changed between 0.6 and 3.7 /min, whereas the volume mass transfer coefficient in the solid phase changed between 0.00009 and 0.00048 /min. Extraction yield at 15 min for particle diameter smaller than 0.85 mm was formulated as a function of solvent flow rate, pressure, temperature, and ethanol concentration by using Response Surface Methodology. According to the model yield was highest (0.26 g /g) at 4 g/min flow rate, 60 oC, 450 bar and 3 % ethanol concentration. Fractionation was not possible at significant levels.


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Citation Formats
S. G. Özkal, “Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of apricot kernel oil,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2004.