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Optimization of Processing Conditions During Halogen Lamp-Microwave Baking of Cakes

Sevimli, Kadriye Melike
The main objective of this study was to optimize processing conditions during halogen lamp-microwave combination baking of cake by using Response Surface Methodology. It was also aimed to compare quality of products baked in microwave-halogen lamp combination oven, halogen lamp oven, microwave oven and conventional oven. In the first part of the study, as independent variables, baking time for conventional oven; microwave power and baking time for microwave oven; halogen lamp power and baking time for halogen lamp oven and microwave power, halogen lamp power and baking time for halogen lamp-microwave combination oven were used. Weight loss, specific volume, firmness and color of the cakes were measured during the study. Cakes baked in conventional oven at 175°C for 24 minutes were determined as the control cakes. Weight loss of cakes increased with increasing independent variables for all oven types. Specific volume and firmness of cakes increased with increasing microwave power, but decreased with upper halogen lamp power. Color formation was achieved in the combination baking but not as much as in the conventional baking. Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the baking conditions in the second part of the study. Upper and lower halogen lamp powers, microwave power and baking time were used as independent variables. Optimum processing conditions were found as 60% for upper halogen lamp power, 70% for lower halogen lamp power, 30% for microwave power and 5 minutes for baking time. Cakes baked at optimum baking conditions had comparable quality with conventionally baked ones, except color. In short, by the usage of halogen lamp-microwave combination oven it was possible to obtain high quality cakes by reducing of conventional baking time about 79%.