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Optimization of halogen lamp-microwave combination baking of cakes: a response surface methodology study

The main objective of this study was to optimize processing conditions during halogen lamp-microwave combination baking of cake by using response surface methodology. The independent variables were the power of the upper halogen lamp (50, 60, and 70%), the power of the lower halogen lamp (50, 60, and 70%), the power of the microwaves (30, 40, and 50%), and the baking time (4, 5, and 6 min). Weight loss, specific volume, color, and the texture profile of the cakes were determined. The upper halogen lamp power, the microwave power, and the baking time were found to have a significant effect on the weight loss, the specific volume, and the firmness of the cakes. Cakes baked for 5 min at 60% upper halogen lamp power, 70% lower halogen lamp power, and 30% microwave power had quality comparable with conventionally baked ones, except for color. By the usage of a halogen lamp-microwave combination oven it was possible to obtain high-quality cakes by reducing the conventional baking time by about 79%.