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Determination of dry deposition fluxes of trace elements in urban atmosphere

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2004
Önal, Gülay
In this work, dry deposition of metals is investigated in an urban area; city of Ankara using snow as a surrogate surface. Two sampling campaigns were conducted to determine dry deposited amount of 13 species namely; H+, Na, K, Al, Mg, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni. First sampling was performed after a major snow fall in Ankara in January 2001, from 4 points according to a predetermined sampling procedure in order to assess background composition of snow. After 12 days, snow samples were collected from 54 points. All samples are filtered, digested and divided into two aliquots in order to investigate soluble and insoluble fractions separately. Temporal changes of snow showed that snow is a good surrogate surface for dry deposition of metals and provide multifunctional informative data. Pollution maps of the city are drawn using Mapinfo software to investigate spatial pollution distributions. Factor analysis are applied and five main factors for these elements are found, indicating three main sources as traffic, soil and combustion. Enrichment factor calculations showed that Ni, Ca, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd are highly enriched pointing out the anthropogenic sources affecting the city atmosphere drastically.