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Ultrasound assisted extraction of lipids and antioxidants from wheat germ

Melikoğlu, Mehmet
The aim of this thesis work was to extract lipids and antioxidants from wheat germ using an ultrasonic bath. Alternative solvents: Ethanol, isopropanol and acetone were used for the extraction purposes and for the fat content determination hexane was used. Alternative solvents dissolve wax, phospholipids and some other proteins because of their polar nature which increased the yield. Since waxes and some proteins can be added to the soaps and creams which were made from carrier oils, obtaining these substances together with the oil in the extract was very useful. For isopropanol a linear relation was found between the extract ratio and ultrasonication time. The highest extract ratios were achieved with ethanol. For 30 minutes of ultrasonication 0.10 g extract / g germ was obtained. After the extraction in order to enhance the phase separation between the solid phase (germ and other solids) and the extract phase, combinations of centrifugation, storage in the refrigerator and decantation were tested. The technique involving storage the extracts in the refrigerator for 24 hours and centrifugation at 2800 rpm for 20 minutes gave the second highest yield but the best phase separation. Ethanol extracts from both roasted and nonroasted wheat germs were characterized in terms of their total polyphenol contents. For non roasted wheat germs total polyphenol contents of 200 mg gallic acid / L solution and for roasted wheat germs an average of 170 mg gallic acid / L solution were obtained for 30 minutes of ultrasonic extraction. For nonroasted wheat germs weak but significant linear relations were found between total polyphenol contents of the extracts and ultrasonication time.