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Investigation of Turkey's carbon dioxide problem by numerical modeling

Can, Ali
CO2 emission is very important, because it is responsible for about 60% of the "Greenhouse Effect". The major objectives of this study were to prepare a CO2 emission inventory of Turkey based on districts and provinces by using the fuel consumption data with respect to its sources, to find the CO2 uptake rate of forests in Turkey based on provinces and districts, and to estimate the ground level concentration of CO2 across Turkey using U.S. EPA's ISCLT3 model for the preparation of ground level concentration maps. The basic sources of the CO2 emission were taken as households, manufacturing industries, thermal power plants and road vehicles. The sinks of the CO2 were forests. The CO2 uptake by forests was calculated using the annual increment of forest biomass. The results of the CO2 emission inventory conducted in this study between the years 1990 and 2003 showed that the CO2 emission in 1990 was 142.45 million tones/year and the highest emission was calculated in 2000 with a value of 207.97 million tones/year. The regional distribution of CO2 emission showed that the Marmara Region emits the highest regional CO2 emission throughout the years with an average value of 54.76 million tones/year. It was also calculated that Marmara and Aegean Regions are responsible for half of the CO2 emission of Turkey. The results of the CO2 uptake calculations showed that the CO2 uptake of forests in the coastal zone was higher that that in the inland zone. The CO2 uptake in the Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia Regions were 2.6, 1.9 and 1.1 million tones/year, respectively. The maximum CO2 uptake is in the Black Sea Region with a value of 16.4 million tones/year. The highest ground level CO2 concentartions without any sink effect were always obtained in the Marmara Region. However, the forest areas in this region decrease the concentrations considerably.