The effects of promoters on the sulfur resistance of nox storage/reduction catalysts : a density functional theory investigation

Koşak, Rukan
High fossil fuel consumption in transportation and industry results in an increase of the emission of green-house gases. To preserve clean air, new strategies are required. The main intention is to decrease the amount of CO2 emission by using lean-burn engines while increasing the combustion efficiency and decreasing the fuel consumption. However, the lean-burn engines have high air-to-fuel ratio which complicates the reduction of the oxides of nitrogen, NOx . The emission of these highly noxious pollutants, NOx , breeds both environmental and health problems. Thus, new catalytic strategies have been steadily developed. One of these strategies is the NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalysts. Since the reduction of the NOx under excess oxygen condition is very difficult, the NSR catalysts store the NOx until the end of the lean phase that is subsequently alternated with the rich-fuel phase during which the trapped NOx is released and reduced. To develop NSR technology, different storage materials, the coverage of these metals/metal-oxides, support materials, precious metals, temperature, etc. have been widely investigated. In this thesis, the (100) surface of BaO with dopants (K, Na, Ca and La), (100) and (110) surfaces of Li2O, Na2O and K2O are investigated as storage materials. In addition, alkali metal (Li, Na and K) loaded (001) surface of TiO2 (titania) anatase is investigated as a support material for the NOx storage and reduction catalysts. The main aim is to increase the sulfur resistance. The introduction of the dopants on the BaO (100) surface has increased the stability of the NO2 . The combination of local lattice strain and different oxidation state, which is obtained by the La doped BaO (100) surface, benefit both NO2 adsorption performance and sulfur tolerance. The binding energies of NO2 adsorption configurations over the alkali metal oxide (100) and (110) surfaces were higher than the binding energies of SO2 adsorption configurations. The stability of all of NO2 adsorption geometries on the alkali metal-loaded TiO2 (001) surface were higher than the stability of SO2 adsorption geometries. Increasing basicity enhanced the adsorption of NO2 molecule.
Citation Formats
R. Koşak, “ The effects of promoters on the sulfur resistance of nox storage/reduction catalysts : a density functional theory investigation,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2011.