Beneficiation of Himmetoglu and Beypazari oil shales by flotation and their thermal characterization as an energy source

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2006
Altun, Naci Emre
Processing of Bolu-Himmetoglu (Type I Kerogen) and Ankara-Beypazari (Type II Kerogen) oil shales by flotation techniques were investigated for achieving clean solid fuel substitutes. Materials characterization was done through mineralogical, XRD and FTIR analyses. Flotation responses of the samples were tested with non-ionizing and ionizing collectors of cationic and anionic types. The effects of the collector dosage and pulp pH on cleaning were determined. Other important flotation parameters, conditioning time, flotation time, pulp density, particle size and frother dosage were encountered using a statistical approach, through a full two level factorial experimental design. An advanced flotation procedure, assisted by ultrasonic application, was developed for further improvement in flotation performance. The effects of cleaning on thermal characterstics and combustion kinetics were evaluated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry and ASTM methods while the changes in the emission profiles were assessed using Effluent Gas Analysis. Himmetoglu sample was characterized as a carbonate and organic rich humic oil shale with XRD and FTIR analyses while Beypazari oil shale involved significant carbonate and clay minerals and exhibited a fulvic character with a poor organics content. Reverse flotation with amine acetates provided the most effective means of cleaning with Himmetoglu oil shale. Ash was decreased from 34.76 % to 23.52 % with a combustible recovery of 83.57 % using 800 g/ton Flotigam CA at natural pH and the calorific value increased from 4312 kcal/kg to 5010 kcal/kg. Direct flotation with amines was most effective for Beypazari oil shale cleaning. Using Armoflote 17, ash was reduced from 69.88 % to 53.10 % with 58.64 % combustible recovery using 800 g/ton Armoflote 17 at natural pulp pH and the calorific value of the sample increased from 876 kcal/kg to 2046

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Citation Formats
N. E. Altun, “Beneficiation of Himmetoglu and Beypazari oil shales by flotation and their thermal characterization as an energy source,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2006.