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National stereotypes, in-group identification, intergroup bias, social categorization and in- /out- group attitiudes: in case of Cyprus

Hüsnü, Şenel
The aim of the present research was to investigate the various determinants of intergroup relations, particularly national stereotypes, in- group identification, contact, and social categorization. In chapter one a total of 150 Turkish Cypriots filled a national stereotypes questionnaire, social identity scale, and a scale assessing intergroup contact. Factor analysis of the stereotypes of the Turkish Cypriots (autostereotypes) demonstrated the existence of four latent variables adopted as Positivity, Competency- Based, Negativity and Religiosity/ Conservatism. The same factor structure was obtained for the stereotypes used to evaluate the Greek Cypriots (heterostereotypes). It was observed that Turkish Cypriots consistently demonstrated in- group favoritisim. In support of the Contact hypothesis it was found that increased exposure was predictive of greater endorsement of positive national stereotypes of the Greek Cypriots. In- group identification seemed to affect in- group attitudes alone; however, moderation analyses showed that in- group identification influenced negative out- group attitudes moderated through positive in- group attitudes. This led to the development of a model of negative out- group attitudes. In the second chapter the direction, content, and uniformity of the national stereotypes Turkish Cypriots endorse regarding the Turkish, Greek and British, three nations that have played a significant role in the history of Turkish Cypriots were assessed. Stereotypes were analyzed according to the following five dimensions: Empathic, dominant, efficient, negative, and religiosity/ conservative. Results led to the conclusion that Turkish Cypriots demonstrated in- group favoritism and had quite uniform autostereotypes yet inconsistent heterostereotypes. Stereotypic content was also mainly determined by the political, historical, and social relationship