Comparison of 2D and 3D finite element models of tunnel advance in soft ground: a case study on Bolu tunnels

Üçer, Serkan
The Bolu Tunnels lie along Trans European Motorway (TEM) which is connecting Eastern Europe with the Middle East. The tunnels are approximately 3.0 km long, 40 m apart and have excavated cross sections more than 200 m2. In construction, New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) was used in soft ground. Due to the challenging ground conditions, many problems have been encountered during tunnelling. To solve these problems special construction techniques were adapted. To simulate and demonstrate the effectiveness of these construction techniques, 2D and 3D Finite Element Methods are utilized in this study. Through comparison between 2D and 3D modelling of advance of Bolu Tunnels, respective merits of these two approaches are investigated and the conditions under which shortcomings of the 2D approach become serious are identified.


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Citation Formats
S. Üçer, “Comparison of 2D and 3D finite element models of tunnel advance in soft ground: a case study on Bolu tunnels,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2006.