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Ion exchangers in the recovery of tartaric acid from aqueous solutions

Başaran, Tolga Yener
Tartaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid naturally present in grapes, and has many application areas with its salts. It can be produced synthetically, manufactured as a by-product in wine industry, or can be recovered by electrodialysis and solvent extraction methods. Since, ion exchange is one of the oldest processing techniques for the recovery and purification of valuable materials, it can be applied to obtain this valuable organic acid. In this study it is aimed to investigate the effects of resin basicity, initial concentration, and initial pH of the solution on ion exchange equilibrium. The model tartaric acid solutions were prepared for the equilibrium analysis with two different anion exchange resins in a batch type system. A shaker bath at 28 oC with 300-rpm agitation rate was used. The weakly basic resin Lewatit MP62, and strongly basic resin Lewatit M511, which are in polystyrene structure, was obtained from the producer Bayer AG. In the analysis, Shimadzu PDA Detector at 210 nm with Waters Atlantis dC18 column was used. 20 mM NaH2PO4 at pH = 2.7 was introduced to the HPLC as the mobile phase at 0.5 ml/min flow rate. In the investigation of the resin basicity, MP62 presented better performance than M511. The equilibrium experiments were performed at three different initial acid concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.10 M) for both resin, and in the pH ranges pH < pKa1, pKa1 < pH < pKa2, and pKa2 < pH for weakly basic resin, and in the pH ranges pH < pKa1, pKa1 < pH < pKa2 for strongly basic resin at each concentration. Results show that the pH of the solution is a more important parameter than the initial concentration that affects the ion exchange equilibrium. Also, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were plotted, and it was shown that they were in good agreement with the experimental data especially for the systems that are at low total ion concentrations.