Multi-frequency contactless electrical impedance imaging using realistic head models : single coil simulations

Gürsoy, Doğa
Contactless electrical impedance imaging technique is based upon the measurement of secondary electromagnetic fields caused by induced currents inside the body. In this study, a circular single-coil is used as a transmitter and a receiver. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to solve the induced current density distribution inside the realistic head model resulting from a sinusoidal excitation, (2) to calculate the impedance change of the same coil from the induced current distribution inside the head model. The Finite Difference Method is used to solve the induced current density in the head. The realistic head model is formed by seven tissues with a 1 mm resolution. The electrical properties of the model are assigned as a function of frequency. The quasi-stationary assumptions, especially for head tissues, are explored. It is shown that, numerical solution of only the scalar potential is sufficient to obtain the induced current density in the head below 10 MHz operating frequency. This simplification not only reduce the excessive size of the solution domain, but also reduces the number of unknowns by a factor of 4. For higher frequencies (depending on the application) induction and propagation effects become important. Additionally it is observed that dynamic monitoring of hemorrhage at any frequency seems feasible. It is concluded that the methodology provides useful information about the electrical properties of the human head via contactless measurements and has a potent as a new imaging modality for different clinical applications.