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A chemical substitution study for a wet processing textile mill in Turkey

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2007
Öztürk, Ertan
The main environmental concern in the textile industry is about the amount of water discharged and the chemical load it carries. The total quantity of chemicals used in textile mills varies from 10% to over 100% of the weight of the cloth produced. Many chemicals currently used in the textile industry affect the amount and the type of waste produced and their influence the aquatic life of the receiving stream. One of the critical steps in pollution prevention studies is auditing the use of chemicals and making the necessary chemical substitutions. Chemical substitution simply means the replacement and/or reduction of hazardous chemicals in products and processes with less- or non-hazardous ones. This study was conducted on one of the major textile factories in Turkey with a capacity of 20,000 tons of denim fabric per year. During this study, chemical consumption level, recipes applied, environmentally problematic and alternative chemicals were examined. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the Textile Industry was accepted as main reference document and also related case studies were examined. According to the study, over 60% reduction in sulphide, which is very toxic to aquatic life, was achieved by replacing sulphur dyestuff with low sulphide content. By replacing an alternative complexing agent, the mill not only prevented the 3100 kg/month COD load to the WWTP, but also obtained more biodegradable wastewater generated during production. On the other hand, some of the chemical substitution options were on progress or dropped.