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Development of in vitro micropropagation techniques for saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

Yıldırım, Evrim
In vitro micropropagation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by using direct and indirect organogenesis was the aim of this study. Also, the effect of plant growth regulators on growth parameters, such as corm production, sprouting time and germination ratio were investigated in ex vitro conditions. For in vitro regeneration of saffron, the effects of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) were tested initially. It was observed that 0,25 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L BAP combination was superior for indirect organogenesis while 1 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L BAP combination was favorable for direct organogenesis. During the improvement of direct organogenesis experiments, BAP (1 mg/L) without 2,4-D stimulated further shoot development. For adventitious corm and root induction, NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) and BAP combinations were tested. Although a few corm formations were achieved, root development was not observed with these treatments. Further experiments with the culture medium supplemented with 1 mg/L IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and 5% sucrose was effective on obtaining contractile root formation and increasing corm number. As a result, the overall efficiency was calculated as 59.26% for contractile root formation, 35.19% for corm formation and 100% for shoot development. In ex vitro studies, 50 mg/L IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) , 50 mg/L kinetin and 200 mg/L GA3 (gibberellic acid) were used. These applications were not as efficient as expected on assessed growth parameters.