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Modeling and control studies for a reactive batch distillation column

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2007
Bahar, Almıla
Modeling and inferential control studies are carried out on a reactive batch distillation system for the esterification reaction of ethanol with acetic acid to produce ethyl acetate. A dynamic model is developed based on a previous study done on a batch distillation column. The column is modified for a reactive system where Artificial Neural Network Estimator is used instead of Extended Kalman Filter for the estimation of compositions of polar compounds for control purposes. The results of the developed dynamic model of the column is verified theoretically with the results of a similar study. Also, in order to check the model experimentally, a lab scale column (40 cm height, 5 cm inner diameter with 8 trays) is used and it is found that experimental data is not in good agreement with the models’. Therefore, the model developed is improved by using different rate expressions and thermodynamic models (fi-fi, combination of equations of state (EOS) and excess Gibbs free energy (EOS-Gex), gama-fi) with different equations of states (Peng Robinson (PR) / Peng Robinson - Stryjek-Vera (PRSV)), mixing rules (van der Waals / Huron Vidal (HV) / Huron Vidal Original (HVO) / Orbey Sandler Modification of HVO (HVOS)) and activity coefficient models (NRTL / Wilson / UNIQUAC). The gama-fi method with PR-EOS together with van der Waals mixing rule and NRTL activity coefficient model is selected as the best relationships which fits the experimental data. The thermodynamic models; EOS, mixing rules and activity coefficient models, all are found to have very crucial roles in modeling studies. A nonlinear optimization problem is also carried out to find the optimal operation of the distillation column for an optimal reflux ratio profile where the maximization of the capacity factor is selected as the objective function. In control studies, to operate the distillation system with the optimal reflux ratio profile, a control system is designed with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Estimator which is used to predict the product composition values of the system from temperature measurements. The network used is an Elman network with two hidden layers. The performance of the designed network is tested first in open-loop and then in closed-loop in a feedback inferential control algorithm. It is found that, the control of the product compositions with the help of an ANN estimator with error refinement can be done considering optimal reflux ratio profile.