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The Köster’s interferometer for gauge block length measurements

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2007
Şendoğdu Çuhadar, Damla
This thesis describes the design, construction and testing of a new interferometer for the absolute measurement of length standards. It is assumed that this study mainly formed of three parts. Firstly, it starts with an introduction to the subject of length standards and length measurement by interferometry. The design of the new interferometer is given in detail, including the stable lasers used as light sources, fiber, optical and opto-mechanical components. In the second part of this study, the mechanical construction of the interferometer chamber is presented with temperature stabilization and controlling system. The temperature variations inside the chamber at different points in air and along the surface of the length standard are given. After that, the techniques for measurement of the refractive index of the air inside the interferometer chamber are summarized. In the last part of the thesis, a review of fringe analysis techniques is given, with an emphasis on 5 position phase-stepping algorithms. The data processing of images digitized in the interferometer is described, including the techniques developed for discontinuity removal and surface fitting. The measurement of the variation in length and flatness of the measuring faces of the length standards is described and the experimental results are given. The automated method of multiple wavelength-exact fractions is used to combine phase measurements at three wavelengths to allow accurate calculation of the length of the length standards. The experimental results are given for length standards. The uncertainty budget of whole system is calculated and presented in a table.