Watermarking for 3D represantations

Koz, Alper
In this thesis, a number of novel watermarking techniques for different 3D representations are presented. A novel watermarking method is proposed for the mono-view video, which might be interpreted as the basic implicit representation of 3D scenes. The proposed method solves the common flickering problem in the existing video watermarking schemes by means of adjusting the watermark strength with respect to temporal contrast thresholds of human visual system (HVS), which define the maximum invisible distortions in the temporal direction. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method gives better results in both objective and subjective measures, compared to some recognized methods in the literature. The watermarking techniques for the geometry and image based representations of 3D scenes, denoted as 3D watermarking, are examined and classified into three groups, as 3D-3D, 3D-2D and 2D-2D watermarking, in which the pair of symbols identifies whether the watermark is embedded-detected in a 3D model or a 2D projection of it. A detailed literature survey on 3D-3D watermarking is presented that mainly focuses on protection of the intellectual property rights of the 3D geometrical representations. This analysis points out the specific problems in 3D-3D geometry watermarking , such as the lack of a unique 3D scene representation, standardization for the coding schemes and benchmarking tools on 3D geometry watermarking. For 2D-2D watermarking category, the copyright problem for the emerging free-view televisions (FTV) is introduced. The proposed watermarking method for this original problem embeds watermarks into each view of the multi-view video by utilizing the spatial sensitivity of HVS. The hidden signal in a selected virtual view is detected by computing the normalized correlation between the selected view and a generated pattern, namely rendered watermark, which is obtained by applying the same rendering operations which has occurred on the selected view to the original watermark. An algorithm for the estimation of the virtual camera position and rotation is also developed based on the projective planar relations between image planes. The simulation results show the applicability of the method to the FTV systems. Finally, the thesis also presents a novel 3D-2D watermarking method, in which a watermark is embedded into 3-D representation of the object and detected from a 2-D projection (image) of the same model. A novel solution based on projective invariants is proposed which modifies the cross ratio of the five coplanar points on the 3D model according to the watermark bit and extracts the embedded bit from the 2D projections of the model by computing the cross-ratio. After presenting the applicability of the algorithm via simulations, the future directions for this novel problem for 3D watermarking are addressed.


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Citation Formats
A. Koz, “Watermarking for 3D represantations,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2007.