Comparison and evaluation of three dimensional passive source localization techniques

Batuman, Emrah
Passive source localization is the estimation of the positions of the sources or emitters given the sensor data. In this thesis, some of the well known methods for passive source localization are investigated and compared in a stationary emitter sensor framework. These algorithms are discussed in detail in two and three dimensions for both single and multiple target cases. Passive source localization methods can be divided into two groups as two-step algorithms and single-step algorithms. Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) based Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Least Squares (LS) source localization algorithms, Time- Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) based ML and LS methods, AOA-TDOA based hybrid ML methods are presented as conventional two step techniques. Direct Position Determination (DPD) method is a well known technique within the single step approaches. In thesis, a number of variants of DPD technique with better computational complexity (the proposed methods do not need eigen-decomposition in the grid search) are presented. These are the Direct Localization (DL) with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC), DL with Deterministic ML (DML) and DL with Stochastic ML (SML) methods. The evaluation of these algorithms is done by considering the Cramer Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Some of the CRLB expressions given in two dimensions in the literature are presented for threedimensions. Extensive simulations are done and the effects of different parameters on the performances of the methods are investigated. It is shown that the performance of the single step algorithms is good even at low SNR. DL with MUSIC algorithm performs as good as the DPD while it has significant savings in computational complexity. AOA, TDOA and hybrid algorithms are compared in different scenarios. It is shown that the improvement achieved by single-step techniques may be acceptable when the system cost and complexity are ignored. The localization algorithms are compared for the multiple target case as well. The effect of sensor deployments on the location performance is investigated.


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Citation Formats
E. Batuman, “Comparison and evaluation of three dimensional passive source localization techniques,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2010.