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The 19th century olive oil industry in Ayvalik and its impact on the settlement pattern

Terzi, Esra
Ayvalık which is located on the Aegean coast of the West Anatolia made its main breakthrough in the 19th century and owe this development to olive oil production which was the main economic input of the settlement since the establishment of Ayvalık. Ayvalık was within the hinterland of İzmir which was gained importance as a regional trade centre in the 19th century. Thus, Ayvalık found the way to improve its trade relations in an international level and eventually increase its olive oil production volume due to the growing demands. The new form of olive oil production; factories, developed together with the traditional house and workshop productions in the last quarter of the 19th century in Ayvalık. These three forms of production made up the second significant usage within the Ayvalık after the residential areas. The two or more floored, large volumed buildings were especially located on the shore, near to the port and trade facilities, on a flat terrain and became the most dominant and attractive buildings of the settlement. Besides the impressive industrial buildings, olive oil production itself effected the settlement pattern of Ayvalık. The main transportation axes were formed accordingly to the relationship between raw material areas and production places. The olive oil production also has an effect on the physical development direction of the settlement. The areas influenced from the negative effects of the production i.e., smell and dust were not chosen for development. The development of industrial buildings also blocked the physical relationship between the residential areas and sea. The industrial buildings such as factories, workshops and warehouses along the coast line reflect the industrial character of Ayvalık in the settlement’s silhouette.