Selection and utilization of criteria for process development in green production of organic chemicals

Download
2008
Haydaroğlu, Şencan
Sustainability and green engineering are two main concepts considered throughout this study. Sustainability deals with the utilization of renewable and replaceable sugar-based twelve most promising building blocks included in the report prepared by U.S. Department of Energy and green engineering concept is related with the incorporation of environmental performance criteria to chemical process design. Process performance criteria at the conceptual design stage are selected as persistence, bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity, economical potential of the processes, atom & mass efficiency of the processes and the relationship between Gibbs free energy of reaction values and economical potential. It is observed that bioaccumulation potentials of both the raw materials and products are low. Petrochemical raw materials are more persistent in air than the bio-based ones. The aquatic toxicity of bio-based raw materials is low; whereas some of the petrochemicals are moderately toxic and allyl alcohol and acrylonitrile among the petrochemicals are classified as highly toxic. Bio -based routes are not economically feasible with 2002 market prices. Atom and mass efficiencies of petrochemical reactions for a group of chemicals are higher than bio-based ones due to mostly addition or substitution reactions. Among high number of products, 1,3 propanediol production from glycerol with two microorganisms is analyzed at preliminary design stage. Process performance criteria are selected as material and energy consumption, cooling water requirement, CO, CO2, SO2 and NOX emissions to the atmosphere per unit of 1,3 propanediol production. Klebsiella pneumoniae process requires less cooling water, but it is less energy efficient and causes higher emissions.

Suggestions

Preparation and characterization of recycled polypropylene based nanocomposites
Cengiz, Filiz; Yılmazer, Ülkü; Department of Chemical Engineering (2008)
The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of a recycled grade polypropylene. Polymer blends and nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding method in a twin screw extruder. Cloisite® 15A, Cloisite® 25A and Cloisite® 30B were used as organoclays, and ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-MAH) were used as compatibilizers. The effects of additive concentrations, types of organoclays and compatibilizers, processing con...
Radiative-convective model for one-dimensional longwave clear sky atmosphere
Aydın, Güzide; Selçuk, Nevin; Department of Chemical Engineering (2008)
Climate models are the primary tools used for understanding past climate variations and for future projections. The atmospheric radiation is the key component of these models. Accurate modeling of atmosphere necessitates reliable evaluation of the medium radiative properties and accurate solution of the radiative transfer equation in conjunction with the time-dependent multi-dimensional governing equations of atmospheric models. Due to difficulty in solving the equations of atmospheric and radiation models ...
Comparison of Fenitrothion and Trifluralin Adsorption on Organo-Zeolites and Activated Carbon. Part II: Thermodynamic Parameters and the Suitability of the Kinetic Models of Pesticide Adsorption
LÜLE ŞENÖZ, Güzide Meltem; Atalay, Mustafa Ümit (Informa UK Limited, 2014-07-04)
The suitability of two kinetic models and the thermodynamic parameters of pesticide adsorption were investigated based on obtained data of previous studies. Kinetic evaluation indicated that the pesticides adsorption on adsorbents followed the pseudo-second-order model. Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (Delta S degrees) were calculated for thermodynamic parameters by using linearized Arrhenius equation. The results indicated that the sorption process of fenitrothi...
Flow sheet optimization by the concept of sustainable development: alumina industry
Kurucak, Abdurrahman; Gürüz, Güniz; Department of Chemical Engineering (2010)
In this study, effects of changes in various parameters of the Bayer process on the amount of “red mud”, which has many environmental drawbacks, were examined in accordance with the principles of “sustainable development”. The production process of Seydişehir Aluminum Plant is modeled as a case study. First a steady-state mass balance calculation is carried out by incorporating sequential modular approach. Then a model of the Bayer process digester is programmed and several simulations are carried out using...
Experimental investagation of drag reduction effects of polymer additives on turbulent pipe flow
Zeybek, Şerife; Uludağ, Yusuf; Department of Chemical Engineering (2005)
Since the discovery of the drag reduction effects of even small amount of macromolecules in solutions in turbulent pipe flows, there have been many experimental and theoretical studies in order to understand mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Theories have been proposed based on the observations on the change in the characteristics of the turbulent flow near the pipe wall where friction of the momentum transfer between the flow and the conduit takes place. In this study drag reduction in fully developed tur...
Citation Formats
Ş. Haydaroğlu, “Selection and utilization of criteria for process development in green production of organic chemicals,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2008.