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Pesticide pollution in surface and ground water of an agricultural area, kumluca, turkey

Öztaş, Nur Banu
Concentrations of 17 organochlorine and 14 organophosphorus pesticides were measured in 27 ground and 11 surface water samples collected from a heavily agricultural area, Kumluca, in spring and fall seasons of 2005. The samples were preconcentrated by Solid Phase Extraction. GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems were used for quantitative determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides respectively. The quality check/quality assurance tests were performed by the analysis of field and laboratory blanks, standard reference materials, spiked control and sample matrices, surrogate standards, sampling and analysis replicates. It is observed that, sample matrix lowers average percent recoveries from 89% to 76%. The uncertainties of measurements were calculated to determine major factors affecting the analysis results. It was observed that uncertainty arising from extraction procedure was generally the highest. The most commonly observed pesticide was endosulfan (70%) and chlorpyriphos (53%) for organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. The highest average concentration was observed for heptachlor (26 ng/L) and fenamiphos (184 ng/L). Generally pesticides were detected more often in surface waters, where the concentrations were also higher. The concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides in spring, and organochlorine pesticides in fall season were higher. The high occurrences and detection of degradation products of chlorinated pesticides clearly indicate their intense use before 1980s. It is shown that, in Kumluca environment, degradation of these pesticides mostly occurs in surface waters. It is observed that agricultural activities affect water quality in the region. The total concentration limit (500ng/L) was exceeded for 27% of surface and 14% of ground water samples, at least once in both seasons. The legal limit for a single pesticide (100ng/L) was exceeded by 32 % of surface, 24 % of ground water samples.