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Indigo dyeing wastewater treatment by the membrane based filtration process

Ünlü, Meltem
In the present study, the recovery of the indigo dyeing rinsing wastewater originating from a denim textile mill to the degree of reuse quality, which generally requires nanofiltration (NF), was investigated. In order to control flux decline and hence to maintain an efficient NF; coagulation, microfiltration (MF) and sequential MF plus ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment process alternatives were tested. All pretreatment alternatives were optimized to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color load to NF. Coagulation process was investigated using the coagulants, aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O) and ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) by running a series of jar tests. The results showed that coagulation process did not provide an effective and efficient pretreatment due to high dose of coagulant requirement. MF tests run by using 0.45, 2.5 and, 8 m membranes indicated that MF through 0.45 m pore-sized membrane is the best process providing 64% color and 29% COD removals, leading to a color value of 2493 Pt-Co and COD of 892 mg /L in the permeate. Application of sequential MF+UF filtration provided a significant benefit over single MF in terms of rejections and also permeate flux. UF applied after MF provided additional 62% color and 4% COD removals leading to 960 Pt-Co color and 856 mg/L COD. NF tests conducted using pretreated wastewater via single MF and sequential MF+UF indicated that single MF is the best pretreatment to NF and this treatment scheme provided 99% color, 97% COD and 80 % conductivity removals and satisfied reuse criteria.