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Effects of different instructional methods and time on students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviors of first aid

Saraç, Leyla
Many research studies have shown that first aid education is important to save lives of individuals, but first aid skills are deficient in a society. A variety of instructional methods were introduced to increase the people who are equipped with first aid skills. However, it is still a debate over the best method of teaching first aid. Therefore, this dissertation aimed to analyze the effects of various instructional methods (traditional, case-based and web-based) on acquisition and retention of first aid cognitive, psychomotor and affective behaviors. Ninety participants (52 female, 48 male) included in the study were the second (n=3), the third (n=44), and the fourth (n=43) year students selecting first aid as an elective course at Middle East Technical University. As the course student list built up for those who would take the course, they were assigned to one of the three groups randomly before the treatment started: Group I-Traditional instruction (30 students), Group II-Case-based instruction (30 students), and Group III-Web-based instruction (30 students). Data were collected by using “First Aid Cognitive Behavior Test”, First Aid Psychomotor Behavior Tests (skill reporter manikin and skill checklist)”, First Aid Affective Behavior Scale”, and qualitative interviews. All students in each instruction group were tested three times Statistical analyses included the Mixed Factorial ANOVA to examine the effects of independent variables (instructional methods and time) on dependent variables (first aid cognitive, psychomotor and affective behaviors). Results showed that instructional method had similar effect on students’ first aid cognitive behaviors. However, students’ in traditional instruction group got higher scores compared to case-based and web-based instruction groups in retention test. In terms of first aid psychomotor behaviors, CPR performance, including chest compressions and ventilations, of web-based instruction group was poor compared to traditional and case-based instruction groups. Similarly, CPR and Recovery Position performance was deprived in web-based instruction group. Retention time negatively affected to psychomotor behaviors of students in most of the skills. In terms of first aid affective behaviors, students’ scores were affected by characteristics of the casualty, characteristics of the first aider, characteristics of the event, and some other factors, however mean scores of students in three instruction groups were close to the “no effect” preference in the first aid affective behavior scale.