An analysis on the utilization of energy and exergy in Turkey

Acar, Berkan
Today, energy has become one of the most indispensable necessities in the world. Most of the wars and the disputes between the countries have been arising because of the increasing scarcity of energy resources. Therefore, like most country, Turkey has also started to develop new energy policies for more efficient production and utilization of energy. In order to help the understanding of more efficient energy utilization, so far there have been some researches made about energy and exergy (available energy) utilization efficiencies of Turkey with the viewpoint of the quality of energy. In this study, it is aimed to examine energy system of Turkey by computing energy and exergy utilization efficiencies between 1990 and 2006 using the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. The utility sector energy efficiencies are found to range from 41% to 47% and the exergy efficiencies to range from 42% and 48% between 1990 and 2006. The energy efficiencies of the end use sectors of Turkey , namely Industrial, Transportation, Agricultural and Residential-Commercial sectors, are respectively 62%, 22%, 27% and 55% on the average with respect to years. On the other hand, their average exergy efficiencies are 33%, 23%, 27% and 7% between the examined years. The total end use energy and exergy efficiencies are 49% and 21% on the average. Overall energy efficiencies of Turkey range between 37% and 41%, whereas overall exergy efficiencies range between 16% and 17%. Within all the sectors, ResidentialCommercial sector is found as the sector having the highest exergetic improvement potential.