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Geology and joint analysis of the Derinkuyu and Kaymaklı underground cities of Cappadocia, Turkey

Mutlu, Mehmet Özgür
This thesis attempts to detect the ignimbrite units in which the underground cities were carved and the relationship between the joints in these ignimbrites and the walls of underground cities. Orientation of rooms, directions of walls and joints are input data used in the study. Two sites in Cappadocia (Derinkuyu and Kaymaklı) are selected to investigate the relationship. Measurements taken from 46 rooms of Derinkuyu and 64 rooms of Kaymaklı are analyzed for the room and joint directions, joint locations in the room and joint densities. The density analyses are also performed in the field for Kızılkaya and Gördeles ignimbrites. Conclusions derived from the analysis are: 1) Derinkuyu is carved within Kızılkaya and Kaymaklı is carved within Gördeles ignimbrite, 2) The thickness of Kızılkaya and Gördeles ignimbrites observed 13.5 and 34 m, respectively, in the field. The probable thickness of Derinkuyu and Kaymaklı underground cities are 40 and 25 m, respectively, 3) The rooms and the joints are oriented arbitrarily, 4) Forming the room walls that are perpendicular to joints were not preferred, 5) The joint densities in Derinkuyu show ascending tendency, while the joint densities in Kaymaklı have descending tendency from top to ground floors, 6) The joint density of Kızılkaya in the field is higher than the joint density in Derinkuyu underground city. Similarly, the joint density of Gördeles in the field is higher than the density of Kaymaklı underground city, 7) The joint density of Kızılkaya ignimbrite is higher than Gördeles ignimbrite in both field and underground measurements.