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Archaeometrical investigation of some medieval glass samples from Alanya region

Beşer, Elif
The archaeological questions of historical glass have lead to remarkable research activities such as identification and sourcing the raw materials used in the glass production, investigations of the ways in which the colors of glass can be modified due to dissolved and/or colloidal coloring agents, the furnace conditions, and the time of fritting and melting. Considering publications, it can be suggested that compositional studies of well-dated glass samples have supplied useful information concerning raw materials’ characteristics and technology of glassmaking. Within this context, the aim of this study was to determine elemental compositions and production techniques of some 13th century Seljukian Period window glasses from Alanya excavation region. During the excavations at Alanya archaeological site involving Inner Castle and out of Inner Castle many glass pieces of varying colors have been found. In this study 25 samples from the area have been examined. Elemental analyses have been carried out using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to determine major, minor, and trace elements. The data v obtained by XRF has revealed that all samples have typical soda-lime-silica composition with the average values of, 68.22 % (SiO2); 11.3 % (Na2O); and 6.7 % (CaO). Hierarchical Cluster analysis has been employed and the samples have been grouped depending on their potassium oxide (K2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO) contents which indicate the probable alkali flux source. The colors of the samples are honey-yellow, brown-yellow, navy blue, blue, turquoise, purple, and green. The coloring agents have been determined as Fe, Cu, Co, and Mn. The data from Optical Microscopy has shown that most of the window glasses might have been produced by cylinder technique. Some other samples have revealed the signs of crown technique, and some might have been produced by casting.