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Assessment of the ground subsidence and lining forces due to tunnel advancement

Karamanlı, Ömer
The use of sprayed concrete lining is common in tunneling practice since it allows the application of non-circular tunnel sections and complex tunnel intersections. Low capital cost of construction equipment is also an important factor for the selection of the sprayed concrete lining. In general the use of sprayed concrete lining is referred as New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM). Depending on the requirements regarding tunnel heading stability and limitations on tunneling induced soil displacements, tunnel cross sections often advanced by different construction sequences and round lengths in NATM. For the purpose of assessing the effects of excavation sequence, round length, soil stiffness and tunnel depth on surface settlements and on tunnel lining forces, a parametric study has been carried out, considering short-term and long-term soil response. Three dimensional finite element analysis are performed to model the excavation sequence and stress distribution around the tunnel lining during excavation. The parameters used in the parametric study can be listed as: tunnel diameter, tunnel depth, round length and soil stiffness. Existing analytical and empirical solutions, which are used for prediction of ground subsidence due to tunneling and forces on tunnel lining, are also reviewed in this study; and their predictions are compared with the results obtained from numerical analysis. This comparison also provides an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the existing efforts. The variations between the results obtained from different methods are discussed and it is concluded that the limitations of the existing methods are the primary reason of the variations between results.