Modernization processes and constitutional revolutions in the Ottoman Empire and Iran

Arslan, Sanem
This thesis aims to analyze the early modernization processes in the Ottoman Empire and Iran up to the end of their eventual constitutional revolutions of the early twentieth century in a comparative manner. In looking at the countries’ modernization processes, it emphasizes the importance of foreign influence – that of Western powers and Russia. It argues that these processes were a response to the rising socio-political and economic power of the West and Western intrusions into the territories of each state. In the Turkish case, the modernization process was mainly led by the rising Ottoman - Turkish intelligentsia despite the differences between the Young Ottomans, the Young Turks and the Committee of Union and Progress members. In the Iranian case, the modernization process was carried out mainly as a grassroots movement comprising reformist intellectuals, members of the ulema, the bazaaris (merchants), trade guilds people, workers and radical members of secret societies. In view of these aspects of the modernization processes taken in the two states, this thesis reveals that both cases ended up replacing their traditional political system with a constitutional monarchy with the aim of saving and reforming the state. The study of the outcomes of the modernizing process in the two states highlights the dissimilarities which are listed as the engagement in alliance-making and wars with the Great Powers, the role of the military, state bureaucracy, the connection between the ulema and the state and nationalist movements.


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Erkurt, Beyhan; Aytekin, Erden Attila; Department of Political Science and Public Administration (2013)
This thesis examines world-system inspired historiography on transition to capitalism in the Ottoman Empire that has been developed as a criticism of the modernization theory that was dominant in the analyses of the Ottoman transformation. It is argued that although the world system inspired analyses overcome the restrictions imposed by the modernization analyses that are based on the deficiencies of Ottoman society compared to the West, they are also crippled with their own restrictions. Considering change...
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Efforts to determine the place of Marxism in the Balkans in a historical manner seem to enable us to outline not only the historical importance of Marxism but also to point out more precisely its relevance with contemporary problems and possible solutions in the Balkans. In order to outline very briefly the place of Marxism in the Balkans, this paper first seeks to discuss the old (late 19th, early 20th) and new (late 20th, early 21st century) common problems people in the Balkans encountered with a view to...
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Oğuz, Zeynep; Altan, Tomris Elvan; Department of History of Architecture (2006)
This thesis focuses on the Ottoman buildings with a T-shaped plan and their meanings with respect to the central and centrifugal tendencies in the Ottoman context in the fourteenth, fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The emergence of the multi-functional buildings of the T-type in the Ottoman realm is simultaneous with the burgeoning of a state in the early Ottoman frontier milieu, which is profoundly intermingled with the notion of gaza; whereas the demise of the use of the T-plan is coincident with ...
Iran's relations with the United States and Western Europe between 1997-2001
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The objective of this thesis is to analyse Iran's relations with the United States and Western Europe between 1997 and 2001. Accordingly, the thesis consists of three main parts. In the first part of the study, a historical background of the foreign policy of Islamic Republic of Iran is outlined. In this context 1979 Islamic Revolution, impacts of the Revolution on the foreign policy and Iran's relations with the West are examined. After the Islamic Revolution, relations with the United States have deterior...
Citation Formats
S. Arslan, “Modernization processes and constitutional revolutions in the Ottoman Empire and Iran,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2010.