Determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in Lake Eymir using regression and artificial neural network models with hybrid inputs

Yüzügüllü, Onur
Chlorophyll-a is a parameter which can be used to understand the trophic state of water bodies. Therefore, monitoring of this parameter is required. Yet, distribution of chlorophyll-a in water bodies is not homogeneous and exhibits both spatial and temporal variations. Therefore, frequent sampling and high sample sizes are needed for the determination of chlorophyll-a quantities. This would in return increase the sampling costs and labor requirement, especially if the topography makes the location hard to reach. Remote sensing is a technology that can aid in handling of these difficulties and obtain a continuous distribution of chlorophyll-a concentrations in a water body. In this method, reflectance from water bodies in different wavelengths is used to quantify the chlorophyll-a concentrations. In previous studies in literature, empirical regression models that use the reflectance values in different bands in different combinations have been derived. Yet, prediction performances of these models decline especially in shallow lakes. In this study, the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a in shallow Lake Eymir is determined using both regression models and artificial neural network models that use hybrid inputs. Unlike the models generated before, field measured parameters which can influence the reflectance values in remotely sensed images have been used in addition to the reflectance values. The parameters that are considered other than reflectance values are photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), secchi depth (SD), water column depth, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved organic matter (TDOM), water and air temperatures, wind data and humidity. Reflectance values are obtained from QuickBird and World View 2 satellite images. Effect of using hybrid input in mapping the reflectance values to chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied. In the context of this study, three different high-resolution satellite images are analyzed for the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration in Lake Eymir. Field and laboratory studies are conducted for the measurement of parameters other than the reflectance values. Principle component analysis is applied on the collected data to decrease the number of model input parameters. Then, linear and non-linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models are derived to model the chlorophyll-a concentrations in Lake Eymir. Results indicate that ANN model shows better predictability compared to regression models. The predictability of ANN model increases with increasing variation in the dataset. Finally, it is seen that in determination of chlorophyll-a concentrations using remotely sensed data, models with hybrid inputs are superior compared to ones that use only remotely sensed reflectance values.