Energy indicators for sustainable development: comparison of Turkey and selected european union countries

Toğçuoğlu, Mehlika Merve
The aim of this study is to compare the sustainable development perspective of Turkey with selected European Union countries in terms of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Energy between 1980-2008. The study is conducted in a comparative and descriptive way by using energy indicators. The common energy policy priorities of Turkey and European Union are determined in the light of recent literature. An energy indicator set is constructed according to energy priorities, namely, energy efficiency and energy intensity; energy security and fuel mix; and environmental concerns. The analysis of relevant indicators demonstrates that Turkey does not meet the sustainability criteria in terms of energy use. In general, findings of the study indicate that Turkey does not use energy efficiently and energy intensities in the economy do not decrease except for the industry sector, for the period 1980-2008. Import dependency has increased and fuel mix of energy sources is dominantly carbon based. Expectations about increasing renewable energy share do not exhibit a significant trend thus energy security and fuel mix are still important issues for Turkey. Lastly, environmental protection in terms of decreasing GHG emissions, air pollution and deforestation could not be achieved as GHG emissions, air pollution and deforestation have increased in Turkey during 1980- 2008 period.