Analysis and design of microstrip patch antennas with arbitrary slot shapes

Şener, Göker
A new method is proposed that provides simple and effcient design and analysis algorithm for microstrip antennas with arbitrary patch shapes. The proposed procedure uses the mutiport network model (MNM) where the antenna is considered as a cavity bounded by perfect electric conductors on the top and the bottom surfaces and perfect magnetic conductor on the side surfaces. Ports are defined along the periphery of the patch, and the impedance matrix representing the voltage induced at one port due to a current source at another port, is obtained through the use of the 2-D Green’s function corresponding to the cavity. For the MNM analysis of patches with irregular shapes such as slotted structures, the segmentation/desegmentation methods are utilized since the Green’s function expressions are available only for regularly shaped cavities. To speed up the analysis and to develop a design procedure, vector Pade approximation is used in order to approximate the antenna impedance matrix as a rational function of two polynomials. When the approximation is performed with respect to frequency, the roots of the polynomial at the denominator provides the resonant frequencies of the antenna. The design algorithm is applicable when the approximation variable is changed to one of the dimensions of the patch that need to be optimized. Because for this case, the roots of the denominator polynomial correspond to optimum dimensions of the antenna where it resonates.